CMN 2101: Exam Review Dec 11th 2012
Research Methods in Communication
Chap 6 13 excluding 9 and 12
Chapter 6Qualitative and Quantitative Research:
Triangulation theory requires using multiple theoretical perspectives to plan a study or interpret the data.
Triangulation of method mixes the qualitative and quantitative research approaches and data.
Linear and nonlinear paths:
Linear fixed sequence of steps
Non linear research path requires us to make successive passes through the steps.
Reconstructed logic: a logic of research based on reorganizing, standardizing and codifying research
knowledge and practices into explicit rules formal procedure
Logic in practice: a logic of research based on an apprenticeship model and the sharing of implicit
knowledge about practical concerns and specific experiences; it is characteristic of qualitative research.
Universe the entire category or class of units that is covered or explained by a relationship or hypothesis.
Bricolage: improvisation by drawing on diverse materials that are lying about and using them in creative
ways to accomplish a pragmatic task.
First order interpretation: interpretations from the point of view of the people being studied. Secondorder interpretation: qualitative interpretations from the point of view of the researcher who
conducted a study.
Third order interpretation: qualitative interpretations’ made by the readers of a research report.
Variable: a concept or its empirical measure that can take on multiple values.
Attributes: the categories or levels of a variable.
Independent variable: a type of variable that produces an effect or results on a dependent variable in a
Dependent variable: the effect or result variable that is caused by an independent variable in casual
Intervening variable: a variable that comes logically or temporally after the independent variable and before
the dependent variable and through which their causal relation operates.
Causal hypothesis: a statement of a causal explanation or proposition that has at least one independent
and one dependent variable and has yet to be empirically tested.
Null hypothesis: a hypothesis stating that there is no significant effect of an independent variable on a
Alternative hypothesis: a hypothesis paired with the null hypothesis that says an independent variable has a
significant effect on the defendant variable
Double barreled hypothesis: a confusing and poorly designed hypothesis with 2 independent variables in
which it is under whether one or the other variable or both in combination produce an effect:
Logic of disconforming hypothesis: the logic for the no hypothesis based on the idea that confirming
empirical evidence makes a weak case for the existence of relationship; instead of gathering supporting
evidence, testing that no relationship exists provides more cautious, indirect support for its possible
Tautology: an error in explanation in which the causal factor independent variable and the result deep in the
variable are actually the same or restatements of one another, making apparent causal relationship true by
Teleology: an error in explanation in which the causal relationship is empirically untestable because the
causal factor does not come earlier in time than the result or because the causal factors vague, general
force that cannot be empirically measured. Ecological fallacy: and Aaron explanation in which empirical data about associations found among large
scale units of analysis are greatly overgeneralize and treated as evidence for statements about
relationships among much smaller units.
Spuriousness: an apparent calls a relationship that is illusionary due to the fact of an unseen are initially
hidden causal factor; the unseen factor has a causal impact on both an independent and dependent
variable and produces a false oppression that a relationship between them exists.
Tautology: the relationship is true by definition involves circular reasoning. Examplepoverty is caused by
having very little money.
Teleology: the cause is an intention that is inappropriate, or is misplaced temporal order. Ex: people get
married in religious ceremonies because society wants them to.
Ecological fallacy: the empirical observations are at too high a level for the calls a relationship that is
stated.Ex: New York has a high crime rate. Joan lives in New York. Therefore, she probably stole my watch.
Reductionism: the empirical observations are at too lowlevel for the cause relationship that is stated. Ex:
because Stephen lost his job and did not buy a new car, the country entered a long economic recession.
Spuriousness: an unseen 3rd variable is the actual cause of both the independent and dependent variable.
Ex: hair length is associated with TV programs. People with short hair prefer watching football; people with
long hair prefer romance stories.(Unseen: Gender)
Conceptualization: the process of developing clear, rigorous, systematic conceptual definitions for abstract
Conceptual definition: the careful, systematic definition of a construct that is explicitly written down.
Operationalization: the process of moving from a construct conceptual definition to specific activities are
measures that allow researchers to observe it empirically.
Operational definition: a variable in terms of specific actions to measure or indicate it in the empirical world.
Rules of correspondence: standards that researchers use to connect abstract constructs with measurement
operations in empirical social reality.
Conceptual hypothesis: a type of hypothesis that expresses rebels and the relationship among them in
abstract conceptual terms.
Empirical hypothesis: a type of hypothesis in which the researcher expresses variables the specific
empirical terms of expresses the Association among measured indicators in observable, empirical terms.
Casing: developing cases in qualitative research.
Measurement reliability: dependability or consistency of the measure of a variable.
Stability reliability: measurement reliability across time, a measure that yields consistent results at different
time points assuming what is being measured does not change itself. Representative reliability: measurement reliability across groups; a measure that yields consistent results
for various social groups.
Equivalence reliability: measurement reliability across indicators; the measurement yields consistent results
using different specific indicators, assuming that all measure the same concept.
Multiple indicators: the use of multiple procedures or several specific measures to provide empirical
evidence of the levels of a variable.
Face validity: the type of measurement validity in which an indicator makes sense as a measure of the
construct in the judgment of others, especially in the scientific community.
Content validity: a type of measurement validity that requires that a measure represent all aspects of the
conceptual definition of a construct.
Criterion validity: measurement validity that relies on some dependent, outside verification.
Concurrent validity: measurement validity that relies on a preexisting authority accepted measured to verify
the indicator of construct.
predictive validity: measurement validity that relies on the occurrence of the future vendor behavior that is
logically consistent to verify the indicator of a construct.
Construct validity: a type of measurement validity that uses multiple indicators and has 2 subtypes: how
well the indicators of one construct converter how well the indicators of different constructs diverge.
Convergent validity: a type of measurement validity for multiple indicators based on the idea that indicators
of one construct will act like or converge.
Discriminant validity type of measurement validity for multiple indicators based on the idea that indicators a
different constructs diverge.
Levels of measurement: a system for organizing information in the measurement of variables into 4 levels
from nominal level to racial level.
Continuous variables: variables are measured on a continuum in which an infinite number of finer
gradations between variable attributes are possible.
Discrete variables: variables in which the attributes can be measured with only a limited number of distinct,
Nominal level measurement: the lowest, least precise level of measurement for which there is a difference
in type only among the categories of a variable.
Ordinal level measurement: a level of measurement identifies a difference among categories of a variable
and allows the categories to be rank ordered as well.
Interval level measurement: a level of measurement identifies differences among variable attributes, ranks
categories, and measures distance between categories but has no true 0.
Ratio level measurement: the highest, most precise level of measurement; variable attributes can be rank
ordered, the distance between them processing measured, and there is absolute 0. Mutually exclusive attributes: the principle that variable attributes or categories in the measure or organize
so that responses fit into one category and there is no overlap.
Exhaustive attributes: the principle that attributes are categories to measure that should provide a category
for all possible responses.
Unidimensionality: the principle that when using multiple indicators to measure a construct, all indicators
should consistently fit together and indicate a single construct.
Index: disarming or combining of many separate measures of the concept for variable to create a single
Standardization: procedures to adjust measures statistics lead to permanent making an honest comparison
by giving a common basis to measures of different units.
Scale: a class of quantitative data measures often meet uses survey research that captures the intensity,
direction, level or potency of the variable construct along a continuum; most are at the ordinal level of
Likert scale: a skill often used in survey research which people express attitudes or other responses in
terms of ordinal level categories (ex: agree or disagree) that are ranked along the continuum.
Response set: a tendency to agree with every question in a series rather than carefully thinking through
one’s answer to each.
Thurstone scaling: measuring in which the researcher gives a group of judges many items and asks them to
sort the items into categories along a continuum and then considers the sorting results to select items on
which the judges agree.
Bogardus social distance scale: a scale measuring the social distance between two or more social groups
by having members of one group indicate the limit of their comfort with various types of social interaction or
closeness with members of the other group(s).
Semantic differential: a scale that indirectly measures feelings or thoughts by presenting people a topic or
object and a list of polar opposite adjectives or adverbs and then having them indicate fe