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Final

CMN2148 Final: Lecture Notes for Final Exam
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Department
Communication
Course Code
CMN2148
Professor
Mary Hawkins

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1. Lecture Notes – Final Exam CMN2148 B Chapter 3; Communication Implications of Major Organizational Theories Objectives  Describe and understand implications and perspectives of Scientific Management theories for organizations  Describe and understand implications and perspectives of Human Behavior theories for organizations  Describe and understand implications and perspectives of Integrated Perspectives theories for organizations  Describe and understand implications and perspectives of Post-modern, Critical, and Feminist theories for organizations  Apply theory to familiar organizations  Practice analysis capabilities  Clarify the importance of values in organizations Principles of Scientific Management; Frederick Taylor (1913)  The inefficiency in most organizations is caused by a lack of systematic management and  “The best management is a true science, resting upon clearly defined laws, rules, and principles, as a foundation.”  Four essential foundational elements of scientific management; 1. Careful selection of workers 2. Inducing and training workers by the scientific method 3. Equal division of work between management and workers 4. Discovering the scientific method for tasks and jobs  Allowing workers to determine how tasks should be performed fostered inefficiency  Management is responsible for identifying “one best way” to perform tasks and that management should be exacting in teaching workers this scientific method for task performance Time and Motion  efficiency of production could be determined by timing the amount of work (motion) performed by individuals and teams  Scientific management could be accomplished only with a well-defined chain of command created by management and very specific division of labor based on well-defined work standards and measurement of standards to increase efficiency.  Method and suggestions of organizing an organization are still used today General and Industrial Management; Henri Fayol (1916, 1949)  First known attempt to describe broad principles of management for the organization and conduct of business  Proposed 14 principles of administration or management that are essential for the effective organization  Place responsibility for exercise of authority with management  Emphasized a difference between authority as a result of job title vs. “personal” authority or authority based on intelligence, experience, moral worth, ability to lead and past service  Importance of credibility and leadership Principle of Unity Command  Orders should come from only one superior  A bypass of the chain of command would be a source of problems  Messages should move from supervisors to subordinates following the formal organizational chart 5 Basic Activities of Management 1. Planning; Development of operational strategies for the organization and the forecasting of future needs 2. Organizing; The use of people and materials to implement the organizational plan or goals 3. Commanding; The management function of obtaining maximum or optimum return for the organization from human and material resources 4. Coordinating; The function of integrating the efforts of all organizational members 5. Controlling; Required management to establish how closely to its plan the organization was operating 3 Types of Authority; Max Weber (1947) 1. Charismatic a. Based on the specific characteristics of the person exerting authority. b. Inspires others to follow. c. Nonstructural (does not go with specific jobs) d. Nontransferable from person to person. e. When the charismatic leader leaves the organization, the authority or ability to influence leaves with him or her. f. Charismatic authority contributes to unstable organizations and disorderly transition of power from one person to another 2. Traditional a. Associated with the customs of a group or society b. More stable than charismatic authority c. Passes from individual to individual based on custom or tradition rather than ability or task competence 3. Bureaucratic a. Rests on formalized rules, regulations, and procedures that made authority “rational-legal,” not based on personal charisma or tradition. b. Bureaucratic leaders selected according to rules and regulations designed to promote the most competent for the particular job. c. Designed to counteract nepotism, favoritism, and unbalanced decision making. d. Formal chain of command and hierarchical structure. e. Impersonality in interpersonal relations f. Employment selection and promotion were to be based on competence Principles of Coordination; Mary Parker Follett  Productive organizations must be concerned with the desires and motivations of individuals and groups.  Characterized conflict as potentially constructive and described collective responsibility and integration as supportive of business excellence.  Famous for her psychological foundations of the smoothly operating organization  Focus on psychological and motivational processes of workers, made significant contributions to the emergence of behavior theories for understanding organizational life Elton Mayo Experiment  altering physical conditions to determine a combination of conditions that would increase productivity including; o lighting o noise o incentive pay o heating Theory X and Y; Douglas McGregor (1960)  Description of management assumptions about workers Theory X Assumptions Theory Y Assumptions 1. People dislike work and will 1. People view work as being as avoid work when possible. natural as play. 2. Workers are not ambitious and 2. Workers are ambitious and prefer direction. prefer self-direction. 3. Workers avoid responsibility 3. Workers seek responsibility and and are not concerned with feel rewarded through their organizational needs. achievements. 4. Workers must be directed and 4. Workers are self-motivated and threatened with punishment to require little direct supervision. achieve organizational productivity. 5. Workers are not highly 5.Workers are creative and capable intelligent or capable of of organizational creativity organizational creativity. 6. Organizations have difficulty in 6. Organizations have difficulty in using human resources. using human resources. Process and Environmental Approaches  Decision-Making Approach  Sociotechnical Integration  Contingency Theory  Systems Theory  New Organization Science and Learning Organizations Contingency Theory; Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch (1969)  Three primary interfaces that determine how organizations operate and respond to their environment o Organization-to-environment o Group-to-group o Individual-to-organization levels Systems Theory; Daniel Katz and Robert Kahn  The organization takes in materials and human resources (inputs), processes materials and resources (throughputs), and yields finished products (outputs) to the larger environment o Optimization, or looking for maximum output in return for minimum input o Open System – exchanges information with its larger environment o Closed System – limits exchange with the environment and seeks to operate as a self-contained unit Senge’s Five Disciplines 1. System thinking: the ability to think about connections and patterns and to view systems as wholes, not individual parts of the patterns. 2. Personal mastery: developing special levels of proficiency. Personal mastery is the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively. As such, it is an essential cornerstone of the learning organization, the learning organization’s spiritual foundation. An organization’s commitment to and capacity for learning can be no greater than that of its members. 3. Mental models: deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action. 4. Building shared vision: the capacity to hold a shared picture of the future we seek to create. When there is a genuine vision, people excel and learn, not because they are told to but because they want to. 5. Team learning: learning that starts with dialogue, the capacity of members of a team to suspend assumptions and enter into genuine “thinking together.” The discipline of dialogue also involves learning how to recognize the patterns of interaction in teams that undermine learning Organizational Culture; Edgar Schein (1985)  Artifacts and Creations o Physical and social environment created by organizational members  Values o Both individual and group preferences for the way things should be in the organization  Basic Assumptions o The core of what individuals believe to be true about the world and how it works  How Organizational Culture Begins; o 1. The founder (or founders) has an idea for a new enterprise; o 2. A founding group is created with members who have initial consensus about the idea o 3. A founding group acts to bring structure and resources to the idea; o 4. The initial functioning of the group is based on the idea; that is, the group begins to develop a history The Strong Cultural Perspective; Frost and Martin (1996)  “Strong or unified” cultures developed by leadership (management) in order to guide an organization to excellence o Effective leaders identify values important to success and build cultures around those values o Domino effect of leadership creating values, reinforcing those values and sharing them with enthusiasm. This breeds higher commitment, greater productivity and more profits The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life; Terrence Deal & Allen Kennedy (1982)  5 Basic Elements of organizational Culture  Business Environment; Shapes the reality of how organizations manage activity and whether they are successful  Values; Help individuals determine where the emphasis of their efforts should be placed – aids in creating dedication  Heroes; Real live human successes who become role models for the culture’s values  Rites and Rituals; Helps to integrate individual and organizational goals  Cultural Network; Organizational communication is the cultural network and as such is the only way to understand what is happening In Search of Excellence; Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman (1982) 1. A basis for action a. Excellent companies made decisions, did not over analyze and took action when they had a problem 2. Close to the customer a. Service, reliability, innovative products and continual concern for customer needs were fundamentals; customer connection was basis for innovation 3. Autonomy and entrepreneurship a. Leaders present in all organizational activity; risk taking and innovation encouraged; employees not tightly creatively controlled 4. Productivity through people a. Fought against we/they management/labor attitude 5. Hands-on, value-driven a. Basic philosophy and values contributed to achievement; values influence employee behavior and considered the core of excellence 6. Stick to the knitting a. Stayed in the business they knew in terms of technology, service and customers 7. Simple form, lean staff a. Simple organizational structure 8. Simultaneous loose-tight properties a. Both centralized and decentralized; autonomy and entrepreneurship encouraged at all levels; decision making was decentralized yet core values were centralized and supported The Fragmentation Perspective; Martin & Frost (1996)  Sees issue-specific consensus more likely than the shared consensus  The relationships among the manifestations of a culture are neither clearly consistent nor clearly inconsistent  Relationships are complex  Change is constant Sense making Model Distinguishing Characteristics; Karl Weick (1995)  Grounded in identity construction o The recipe is a question about who I am as indicated by discovery of how and what I think  Retrospective o To learn what I think, I look back over what I said earlier  Enactive of sensible environments o I create the object to be seen and inspected when I say or do something  Social o What I say and single out and conclude are determined by who socialized me and how I was socialized, as well as by the audience I anticipate will audit the conclusions I reach  On-going o My talking is spread across time, competes for attention with other ongoing projects, and is reflected on after it is finished, which means my interests may have already changed  Focused on and by extracted cues o The “what” that I single out and embellish as the content of the thought is only a small portion of the utterance that becomes salient because of context and personal dispositions  Driven by plausibility rather than accuracy o I need to know enough about what I think to get on with my projects, but no more, which means sufficiency and plausibility take precedence over accuracy Stewart Clegg (1990)  Post-modern and Critical Perspective o Highly ordered o Technologically specialized o Mass-Mediated o Demanding of precision, speed, flexibility and adaptability in individual performance  Promote… o Numerous constructions of reality o Ambiguity o Distrust of traditional authority o Alternative sense-making Critical Theory  Criticism/a critique of society, organizations and social constructions.  Same concepts can be applied to evaluate the structure and culture of an organization Karen Ashcraft (2006)  Bureaucracy helped to define and divide public and private spheres of human activity by casting suspicion on private subjects as irrational, chaotic…Feminist organization is generally conceived as the pursuit of empowerment by way of a kind of collectivism – one that seeks a harmonious integration of public and private life worlds o Views the primary goal of organization as a means to an end o Top-Down Hierarchical o Formal and specialized division of labor o Defines professionalism as rational and impersonal with separation of public and private lives o Control rests on formal exhaustive standardized rules  Feminist organizations; o Gender empowerment is the end o Egalitarian with authority decentralized and grounded in consensual decision making o Division of labor is informal, contributing to community building o Values emotional and personal integration in which work is fully integrated with private selves o Control reflects a shared culture of informal norms and ideological commitments Chapter 6; Groups in Organizations Objectives  Identify types of groups in organizations  Describe working in groups  Describe group norms and communication roles  Describe the team-based organization  Describe the high-reliability organization  Relate individual communication behaviors to effective participation in groups  Understand positive and negative participation behaviors  Evaluate personal skills for group participation  Practice effective group participation  Practice analysis capabilities  Relate group effectiveness to individual participation behaviors  Identify responsibilities for self-managing groups  Understand the concept of workplace democracy Defining ‘Group’; John Baird (1977)  “a collection of more than two persons who perceive themselves as a group, possess a common fate, have organizational structure, and communicate over time to achieve personal and group goals.” o This definition places communication relationships at the core of group activity  Groups can be understood in terms of how they are formed and structured, how individuals understand their dependence on one another, and how members communicate Sias & Silva (2010)  Groups provide important relationships between individuals and the larger organization o Link individual members, provide an expressive environment, allows for restructuring, allows dis-identifications with the organization while maintaining relationship, helps establish shared realities Team-Based Organization vs. Teamwork and vs. Hierarchy  Team-based organization; o refers to a structural change from hierarchy to flat and often networked configurations of teams.  Over 70 percent of corporations today have team-based structures  Team based structures generally outperform more hierarchically organized structures in terms of product and service output, less absenteeism, fewer industrial accidents, more worker flexibility, quality improvements, and overall employee job satisfaction.  Research covering fifteen years that describes team-based structures as more innovative, able to share information, involved, and task skilled than more traditional organizational structures o Goals; Overall business goals of the organization are established by management, but work unit goals are established by team members, who monitor their own results o Roles; Requires a more diverse role set from individual team members o Relationships; : Relationships with customers, vendors, and others in the organization are managed directly by the team o Processes; Processes such as conflict management, problem solving, decision making, and leadership become team member responsibilities  Teamwork; o is the ability of individuals to work collaboratively  Hierarchy o Goals; Management generally is responsible for goal setting with limited input from workers o Relationships; Supervisors and managers initiate change and provide communication links throughout the organization Common Group Communication Roles Diverse Work Groups; Taylor Cox Jr. (1993)  “It is important to acknowledge that all members of organizations, not just members of minority groups, have salient group identities. To the extent that gender affects organizational experience, it affects both men and women. To the extent that racioethnic identity has effects, it affects Whites and non- Whites. If accountants are disdained in favor of engineers, both engineers and accountants are affected. Appreciation of this simple fact, that we all have group identities which affect our own behavior and how others treat us, is a vital step toward building personal competence for working in diverse groups” o The key notion is not that differences exist but how the group engages with these differences as it works on both task and relationship issues o Studies support social category diversity (age, race, gender, etc.) had a positive affect on the morale of group members, informational diversity, improved work products o Value diversity contributed to decreased satisfaction and commitment to the group Work Groups; Stephen Littlejohn & Karen Foss (2008)  Three Clusters of Cultural differences; (important for the functioning of diverse groups) o Individualism-Collectivism; Members of individualistic cultures often view their own goals as more important than the goals of the group. Expressed views during group interactions are treated as individual statements. Members from collectivistic cultures may prefer to defer to the entire group o Self-Construal; Some cultures support a self-construal which is independent, while others support interdependence and connections to others o Face Presentation; The concept of face refers to image, including self-image and the image of others. Some cultures focus on making the individual look good while other cultures focus on others and creating situations where what we call face-saving for others occurs Creativity and Collaboration in Work Groups; Leigh Thompson (2003)  Major Threats to Creativity;  Social Loafing; Group members do not work as hard as they might individually, depending on others to come up with new approaches or ideas  Conformity; In order to be liked or maintain harmony, group members publicly agree with one another even when they may have some doubts about a particular solution or idea  Production Blocking; The loss of individual ideas when others are speaking and the difficulty of listening and trying to identify where individual contributions should fit in the discussion  Downward Norm Setting; The performance level of the group is determined by the lowest performers. Groups who work together over time often give up on ideas simply because they require too much work Avan Jassawalla & Hermant Sashittal (1999)  Effective collaboration processes in groups are important for enhancing creativity  Members have mostly equal stature in the group and all influence decision making  Transparency refers to the clarity that group members believe they have with one another about motivations and intentions.  Hidden agendas are not present and intense information sharing occurs.  Ideas are put on the table and disagreements can be handled without disturbing individual relationships.  Mindfulness occurs when decisions are made that take into account various perspectives and the context of the decision.  Synergy reflects the comfort and energy group members feel in working together and their belief in the quality of their work Virtual Groups/ Group Technology Use in Work Groups  For Employees in Virtual Groups o Commute times reduced, flexibility increased, quality of life enhanced  However, o Others feel disconnected from their organizations, are missing social interaction, and can damage careers due to isolation  The virtual environment is yet another challenge for communication competency. Not only is technical competency required, but also the style and tone of written messages often differ substantially from verbal exchanges o Cultural differences can obscure clarity and intention Increasing Group Participation Effectiveness Negative Participation Behavior 1. Argue stubbornly for your own ideas, positions, and conclusions. Make sure all members know exactly where you stand, and resist modifying or changing your views. Do not bother to listen actively to opposing viewpoints because of the rightness of your position. 2. Suppress differences of opinion and conflict. Use formal techniques such as agendas or majority rule to quiet opposition. Don’t encourage others to express controversial opinions, and make sure the group considers only safe topics. 3. Work for quick agreement. Extended problem analysis and solution generation may contribute to dissent. Don’t worry about “groupthink” because, after all, you are a group and everyone should support the same viewpoint. 4. If a stalemate occurs, pit one person against another so that there are clear winners and losers. This action will return the group to action and discourage others from blocking progress. 5. Use your power position to get others to agree with you. Don’t hesitate to pull rank or threaten sanctions to preserve your ability to influence others. 6. Don’t respond to e-mail requests. Send e-mails that attack others. Communicate only to selected members of the group. Positive Participation Behaviors 1. Be prepared and informed when in decision-making and problem-solving groups. 2. Exhibit cooperative and open-minded behaviors that encourage participation by all involved. 3. Value diverse opinions and people. Promote different ideas, challenge team members to offer alternative views, support disagreement, and encourage broad participation. 4. Contribute ideas and seek information. Willingly risk ideas and opinions, ask for criticism, ask for opinions, support participation, and discourage negative evaluation. 5. Attempt to remain rational, and thoughtfully evaluate all information 6. Observe the participation process of the group. 7. Actively participate as well as observe. Active participants who seek active participation from others set a tone in the group that encourages good decision making and problem solving. 8. Stress group productivity: encourage group members, note past successes, identify group strengths, and remember group responsibilities. 9. Avoid “role ruts.” Use diverse communication roles, encourage diversity among team members, and share roles with others. 10. Avoid self-centered roles. Identify disruptive behaviors, self-monitor behavior, and give feedback to those exhibiting self-centered roles. 11. Ease tensions. Facilitate positive expressions of differences, support people, evaluate ideas, and stress cooperation. 12. Support leadership. Help leaders accomplish goals, and share leadership when necessary. 13. Build group pride. Create traditions, symbols, and slogans; celebrate work, progress, and success. Celebrate interpersonal relationships. 14. Produce results. Take responsibility for group outcomes, encourage responsibility from team members, and focus on effectiveness. 15. Think about the wise use of computer-mediated communication. Respond to requests thoughtfully and understand the difference between verbal and computer-mediated interactions Chapter 7; Leadership and Management Communications Objectives  Describe leadership from trait, style, transformational, discursive, and situational approaches  Distinguish between leadership and management  Clarify a personal “theory” of leadership  Understand leadership styles, strategic objectives, and tactics  Assess leadership strategies and tactics  Practice analysis capabilities and skills using cases, transcripts of meetings, and group activities  Relate leadership to organizational excellence  Understand the need for leadership from all organizational members  Describe principled and ethical leadership Situational Approaches; Paul Ersey & Kenneth Blanchard (1977)  Effectiveness of a particular leader was related to the leader’s selection of behavior appropriate to the maturity level of the follower group. Maturity was based on achievement, motivation, ability, education, experience, and the willingness to participate responsibly in goal-oriented activities Transformational Approach; Hackman & Johnson (2009)  “The transactional leader is most concerned with the satisfaction of physiological, safety, and belonging needs. To meet these needs, a transactional leader exchanges rewards or privileges for desirable outcomes…” o Transformational leaders are creative, interactive, visionary, empowering, and passionate Fundamental of Super-Leadership  Establishing a vision  Defining goals for the leader and for the followers  Reinforcing individuals for good performance  Using constructive contingent reprimands  Managing and facilitating change  Enhancing the self-efficacy of followers  Using models to teach desired and appropriate behaviors Leadership Vs. Management; Bennis and Nanus (1985)  Distinction between leadership and formal authority o The vision leaders provide is the clearest of all distinctions between leaders and managers o “Great leaders often inspire their followers to high levels of achievement by showing them how their work contributes to worthwhile ends. It is an emotional appeal to some of the most fundamental human needs.”  Challenges o Confronting Ethics and Failures o Changing Organizational Forms o Global and Multicultural Changes o Chaos, Flux and Speed o Inclusive-Participation Processes o Building Trust Determinants of Leadership Effectiveness  Communication Competencies o Knowledge, sensitivity, skills, and values must all be understood and developed for both individuals and entire organizations to be effective in our emerging information era  Predispositi
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