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CMN2168 Final: Master Doc of all Lecture Notes

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University of Ottawa
Elie Banyongen

Lecture Notes CMN2168 A Notes for Midterm Introduction Course Objectives • Increase the understanding of some preliminary concepts in Globalization • Gain knowledge on different dimensions of globalism • Understand the evolution of the Nation-State within the context of globalization Universalism Vs Cultural Relativism • Universalism o Refers to the notion that human rights are universal and should apply to every human being o Universalism states that as people we all share in being equal in dignity and in rights and thus we are united together against any form of discrimination, inequality, or any violations of human rights • Cultural Relativism o Cultural relativists object, and argue that human rights are culturally dependency, and that no moral principles can be made to apply to all cultures o Cultural relativists argue that universalism, in its attempt to extend a Western ideal to the rest of the world, is a form of cultural imperialism • Nature does not equal Culture o Nature ▪ Geography ▪ Climate etc. o Culture, is what we do based on these environmental/ natural factors ▪ For Example; Inuit’s have 300 words for snow, whereas in Kenya, there are no words for snow. There is no cultural norm or recognition of snow, because culture adapts to nature. We respond differently to our environments appropriate to each environment. The Butterfly Effect • Implies that large events may be tied to small occurrences • A phenomenon in which small perturbation in the initial condition of a system results in large changes in later conditions o Such phenomenon are common in complex dynamical systems and are studied in chaos theory Globalization as a Complex Concept • Globalization is not a single concept that can be defined and encompassed within a set frame, nor is it a process that can be defined clearly with a beginning and an end o It cannot be expounded upon with certainty and be applicable to all people and in all situations • Globalization is a process that; o ‘encompasses the causes, course, and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and no-human activities’ o ‘generates flows and connections, not simply across nation-states and national territorial boundaries, but between global regions, continents and civilizations’ o ‘a historical process which engenders a significant shift in the spatial transcontinental or interregional patterns of human organization, activity and the exercise of power’ – McGrew (2001) • Globalization involves; o Economic integration o The transfer of policies across borders o The transmission of knowledge o Cultural stability o Reproduction, relations and discourses of power o A global process, concept, revolution, and an establishment of the global market free from socio-political control • Activities Private Governmental Third Sector Supranational TMC’s IGO’s NGO’s National Firms Central Not for profits Subnational Local Local Local 2 Globalism: Nye & Donahue (1999) • A state of the world involving networks of interdependence at multi- continental distances • These networks can be linked through flows and influences of; o capital and goods, o information and ideas, o people and force, o and environmentally and biologically relevant substances ▪ Ex; acid rain or pathogens • Globalization and Deglobalization refer to the increase of decline of globalism • Characteristics (2) o Globalism refers to networks of connections (multiple relationships) o For a network to be considered ‘global’, it must include multi- continental distances, not simply regional networks • Dimensions of Globalism o Economic Globalism; long-distance flows of goods, services, and capital, and the information and perceptions that accompany market exchange o Military Globalism; refers to long-distance networks of interdependence in which force, and the threat or, promise of force are employed o Environmental Globalism; the long-distance transport of materials in the atmosphere or oceans or of biological substances such as pathogens or genetic materials that affect human health and well- being o Social and Cultural Globalism; movement of ideas, information, and images, and of people who carry ideas and information with them o Political Globalism; that subset of social globalism that refers to ideas and information about power and governance o Legal Globalism; the spread of legal practices and institutions to a variety of issues, including world trade and the criminalization of war crimes by heads of state o Globalization also occurs in the dimensions of science, entertainment, fashion, language etc. o Dimensions are relevant to communications because for all of these you require information in order to for example; understand networks 3 and currency (economic), or feel threatened/understand the danger (military), this information is not achievable without communication The End of the Nation-State: Morgenthau (2001) • Modern technology has rendered the nation-state obsolete as a principle of political organization o the nation-state is no longer able to perform what is the elementary function of any political organization: to protect the lives of its members and their way of life o Modern technology in transportation, communications, and warfare etc, have destroyed the protective function of the nation-state The Network Effect • Phenomenon whereby a good or service becomes more valuable when more people use it o Example; Internet. Initially used by very few, and it was a relatively low value to anyone outside the military and researchers The Knowledge Economy: Kok Report (2004) • ‘the knowledge society is a larger concept that is just an increased commitment to research and development (R&D) • covers every aspect of the contemporary economy where knowledge is at the heart of value o added from high tech manufacturing and ICTs through knowledge intensive services to the overtly creative industries such as media and architecture Globalization and the Nation-State • Globalization is having a profound effect upon national and international rules o Example; globalization is influencing the norms that govern world commerce, transportation, environmental protection, etc. Historical Perspectives on Globalization and Communication Class Objectives • Understand the historical evolution of global communications • Increase their knowledge of the core debates around the New World and Information and Communication Order 4 • Enhance their comprehension of the digital divide The Central Role Played by War • The report on war was the first truly international news • William Harold Russell o First foreign was correspondent for the London-Based Times during the Crimean War (1853-56) • Three main facts emerged from this coverage; o A legionary nursing pioneer complain about how poorly the British war casualties were treated o Queen Victoria called for a Royal Commission on Health and War o The impact of the Times coverage was so important and explosive that the number of the journalists assigned later to cover the US Civil War skyrocketed (1961-65) • The London Times circulation nearly doubled o When they realized the potential media had to transfer information The New World Information and Communication Order; Raube-Wilson (1986) • Definition; a plan that proposes to remedy the existing inequality in the flow of information. Its scoped is quite broad, encompassing the exchange of all types of information relating to political, social, and economic subjects o Also embraces all known means of exchanging such information, including the media, books, films, and data banks • The NWICO was launched by the United Nations for Education Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO) and dominated the international communication agenda for almost two decades • This represents; o An evolutionary process seeking a more just and equitable balance in the flow and content of information o A right to nation self-determination of domestic communication policies o As the international level, a two-way information flow reflecting more accurately the aspirations and activities of less developed countries (LDC’s) 5 Free-Press Against Censorship • In seeking to gain a more balanced flow of information, peripheral regions postulate potential mechanisms that clash with strongly held journalistic traditions and practices in the west • Western medias were concerned that NWICO legitimate a Governmental role in the dissemination of information • What people in Western learn about peripheral regions is meager and the result of several gatekeepers LDCs Concerns • Began at meeting of non-aligned nations o Algeirs (1973) o Tunis (1976) o New Delhi Ministerial Conference of Non-Aligned Nations (1976) • Movement was kept alive through the 1980’s by McBride Round Table meetings on communications o Even though by then, UNESCO leadership distanced itself The McBride Report • McBride Commission; a UNESCO panel chaired by Nobel Prize winner Sean MacBride o Charged with the creation of a set of recommendations to make global media representation more equitable o NWICO was widely used on this panel • ‘Many Voices, One World’ report o outlined the main philosophical points of the NWICO Electronic Colonialism Theory (ECT) • Macro-approach • Aims to two rights within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights o Article 27; everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits o Art 30; everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary, or artistic production of which they are author • Focuses; 6 o How to capture the minds and to some extent the consumer habits of others o Assess the impact of a foreign power on culture based on the fact that culture is basically an attitude and learned o Changes can usually do impact friends, family, and community ties o New culture has emerged that is a global phenomenon driven primarily by large multimedia conglomerates Four Epochs of Global Colonialism • Military Colonialism (BC - 1000) o Characterized by military conquests o Occurs during the Greco-Roman period and witnessed the expansion of the Roman Empire throughout most of what is now modern Europe, including North Africa • Christian Colonialism (1000 - 1600) o Militant Christianity of the crusades represented the second colonialism era during the Middle Ages o Crusades sought to control territory from Europe, and Northern Africa, to the Middle East o 1095 on; a series of crusades over 200 years ▪ resulted in Eastern expansion and the establishment of new European colonies promoting Christianity in the Middle East and in Africa o Territories were seized from Muslims as Western civilization became the dominant international force of hegemony • Mercantile Colonialism (1600 - 1950) o Began with the invention of significant mechanical advances in the seventeenth century o Spawned by a desire for; ▪ cheap labor, ▪ the importation of raw materials, ▪ ready export markets created by colonies ▪ finished products ▪ the industrial revolution o Objects of conquests by Europe included; Africa, the Caribbean, the Americas • Electronic Colonialism (1950 – present) 7 o Represents the dependent relationship of poorest regions to post industrial nations ▪ This is caused and established by; the importation of communication hardware and foreign-produced software, ▪ Engineers & Technicians ▪ Related information protocols that established foreign norms, values, and expectations that alter domestic cultures language, habits, values, and socialization processes World System Theory • States that global economic expansion takes place from a relatively small group of core-zone nation-states out to two other nation-states in semi- peripheral and peripheral zones o Core Nations; capital-intensive, high-wage, high-technology production, & lower labor exploitation and coercion o Semi-periphery Nations; involved in ‘Core-like,’ as well as peripheral activities o Peripheral Nations; labor-intensive, low-wage, low-technology production involving high labor exploitation and coercion Wallerstein’s World System Theory Model; The Digital Divide • Refers to the gap between demographics and regions that have access to modern information and communications technology, and those that don’t or have restricted access o Includes; telephones, TV, personal computers, and the Internet 8 Globalization, Theories, Actors and Issues Objectives • Increased understanding of Globalization theories • Improved knowledge of the regulatory bodies involved in the management of global communication • Enhanced understanding of key players on the global communication field Many Theories • Leading theorists have analyzed globalization in contradictory ways o Some say it is generalized modernity, or post-modernity, or something else entirely • Most theorists operate at a very abstract level and do not produce much evidence • Need to construct the globalization paradigm from the work of leading theorists • Need to see whether the evidence supports or contradicts the theory • Need to distinguish between ‘strong’ theories of globalization, that mean something new and ‘weak’ theories that are simply versions of the imperialism paradigm in a new language A New Kind of Theory • Globalization is radically different from preceding theories o ‘strikingly new’ – Appadurai (1996) • Sociological laws operating in the period of globalization are different from earlier periods o Different from capitalism & imperialism, o High modernity o Industrial society • They act together to make understanding the dynamics of the new society different Political Science Theories Contrast with Marxism • Marxism ‘reductivists’ • ‘the complexity of the current global economy has to do with certain disjunctures between economy, politics ad society’ – Appadurai (1996) o Globalization theory recognizes irreducible complexity 9 • Globalization characterized by ‘ various autonomous logics’ – Beck (2002) for example in culture Globalization: A Phenomenon Beyond our Control - Anthony Giddens • Close link between globalization and (manufactured) risk • Emphasized role of the West to influence (particularly the U.S) • Increasingly de-centered as non west plays larger role • Globalization undermined local cultures and serves to revive them • Globalization ‘squeeze sideways’ to produce a new area that may cut across nations • Sees the emergence of ‘Global Cosmopolitan Society’ • Thinks fundamentalists are problematic o Against cosmopolitan o Linked to violence Politics of Globalization & Cosmopolitan Critic of Globalization – Ulrich Beck • Distinction between globalism and globality • Globalism; o World dominated by economics o Hegemony of capitalist world market & neo-liberal ideology underpins it • Globality; o Everyday life and interaction across national border are profoundly affected o Self-perception of trans-nationality in mass media, consumption and tourism realms o Community labor & capital is increasingly placeless o Growing awareness of global ecological dangers and of actions to be taken to deal with them o Increasing perception of transcultural others in our lives o Global culture industries circulate at unprecedented levels o Increase in number & strength of transnational agreements, actors, and institutions • Beck: Involves mono-causal & linear thinking o Wrong to assume global developments reduce to single economic dimension o Sees the world as multi-dimensional & multidirectional o Problems in the capitalist world market 10 ▪ All sorts of trade barriers ▪ Winners and losers in the market Human Consequences of Globalization – Zymant Bauman • Bauman proposed to assess globalization by stressing out its consequences on human being • Globalization = ‘space war’ where Territories become ‘battle-fields’ o Winner ▪ Have the most mobility and creates meaning for themselves ▪ Live in time (span space quickly) o Loser ▪ confined to isolated territories denuded of meaning ▪ Live in space which ties them down o Mobility is a differentiating factor in social stratification • It is important to distinguish who have at least some degree of mobility; o Tourist – on the move because they want to be o Vagabonds – move because they find their environment unbearable Cultural Differentiation • In spite of globalization, there are lasting differences in cultures and civilizations o Core culture remains the same o Globalization occurs on the surface • Cultures closed to globalization and influence of other culture o Billiard ball game – potential catastrophic collisions among world cultures – Naderverseen (2004) • Clash of civilization – Huntington • Clash between the west (Arrogance), Islam (intolerance) and Sinic (Assertiveness) o West views itself ‘Universal vulture’ (democracy) and desire to export to the rest of the world which Islam sees an Imperialism Cultural Convergence • Globalization leads to sameness throughout the world • Cultures of the world grow increasingly similar to some degree • Global assimilation to the dominant group • Bali & Lechner (2005); who operate on this perspective focus on; o Cultural imperialism 11 o Westernization o Americanization o ‘McDonaldization’ o World Culture • Global processes that are bringing the same or similar phenomena Mac-Donaldization • A process by which the principles of ‘fast-food-restaurants’ are coming to dominate more and more sectors in the US and the world • Consists of 5 dimensions; o Efficiency ▪ Best possible means to achieve what ever end is desired ▪ Ensure customer and employee act in an efficient manner ▪ Consume more efficiently (example; drive-thru’s) o Calculability ▪ Quantity (speed) opposed to quality (of food) ▪ Various aspects of work and timed o Predictability ▪ Emphasis on predictability employees (scripted speeches) and customers (know what they want) ▪ Expected to respond with predictable behavior o Control by means of Technology ▪ Great technology control system, which will replace employees ▪ Offer standard food which customers cannot alter o Irrationality of Rationality ▪ Both customer and employees suffer ▪ Example; efficiency of speed replaced by inefficiency of long lines Global Communication Theories Free Flow of Information • After the second world war and the establishment of a bi-polar world of free market capitalism and state socialism, theories of international communication flows become part of the new cold war discourse • The concept ‘Free Flow’ represented western, especially US antipathy to state regulation, censorship and the use of media for propaganda by its communist opponents 12 o ‘Free Flow’ is a liberal, free market discourse that championed rights of media proprietors to sell where ever and what ever they want o therefore, it served economic and political purposes ▪ here, media organizations of rich countries could dissuade others from erecting trade barriers to their products or from marking is difficult to gather news from territories ▪ their arguments drew on premises of democracy, FOX, media role as watchdogs and their assumed global relevance Modernization Theories • complementary to the doctrine of ‘Free Flow’ was the view that international communication, key to development in the third world • international mass communication could be used to spread the message of modernity transfer economic, political models of the west to the newly independent countries of the south • Western ways (power, wealth, skills, rationality etc.) are a stimuli for development and a bridge to a wider world • Criticism; o Top-down approach o Narrow approaches o Media are not neutral force o Modern (western) and traditional are not mutually exclusive Dependency Theory • Emerged in Latin America in late 1960’s, and early 1970’s in opposition modernization theory, need for alternative approaches, from the south • Cultural imperialism/edia ‘imperialism’ from dominance of western cultural products especially Hollywood – Schiller (1976) • Criticism • They offer no tangible solutions Critical Theory • ‘Cultural Industries’ production of culture as a commodity by the capitalist societies as enmass • the lead to standardization resulting into mass culture leading to the deterioration of other cultures • forum for propaganda capitalism ideologies and thinking among recipients 13 • these debates have greatly influenced debates of the Global flow of information and communication Theory of Information Society • Innovations in ICT’s especially computing and their rapid global expansion has led to claims that this is an IS • Speed, volumes, costs influencing global flows • Convergence of telecoms with computing creating new information and communication flows between states, business and among ‘ordinary’ people • Dimensions of Information Theory o Technological; New technologies are one of the most visible indicators of new times o Economic; this approach charts the growth in economic worth of informational activities o Occupational; the occupational structure is examined over time and patterns of change observed o Spatial; this conception of the information society, while it does draw on economics and sociology, has at its core the geographer’s stress on space o Cultural; each of us is aware, from the pattern of our everyday lives, that here has been an extraordinary increase in the information in social circulation – Webster (2006) The CNN Effect • A theory that seeks to explain the effect that 24-hour news networks, such as CNN, have on the general political and economic climate • Because media outlets provide ongoing coverage of a particular event or subject matter, the attention of viewers is narrowly focused for potentially prolonged periods of time • The CNN effect can therefore cause individuals and organization to react more aggressively towards the subject matter being examined 14 Variations of the CNN Effect Accelerant Media shortens decision-making response time. Television diplomacy evident. During time of war, live, global television offer potential security-intelligence risks. But media may also be a force multiplier, method of sending signals. Evident in most foreign policy issues to receive media attention. Impediment (Two Types) Emotional, grisly coverage may undermine morale. Government attempts to sanitize war (emphasis on video game war), limit access to the battlefield Global, real-time media constitute a threat to operational security. Agenda-Setting Agency Emotional, compelling coverage of atrocities or humanitarian crises reorder foreign policy priorities. Somalia, Bosnia, Haiti and lately Syria are the examples. Actors The Global Media and Communication Policy (GMCP) • The institutional landscape of GMCP has changed over the past thirty to forty years, and to suggest how it may evolve in the decade ahead, as a result to the interplay between technological, economic, social, and political forces - MacLean (2011) Five institutions that have well-defined roles in GMCP; • International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 15 o 191 Member states in 2009 and more than 700 Sector members o Non-governmental entities and organizations that manufacture information and communication technology (ICT), goods, provide telecommunication, broadcasting, and radio-communication services, and engage in scientific research and development in telecommunication areas o This argument is unique to the UN system o ITU has 4 main roles in GMCP ▪ Global regulation of the allocation and use of radio frequency spectrum and satellite orbital positions ▪ Global standardization of ICT equipment, networks and services ▪ Provision of policy and regulatory advice as well as technical and capacity-building assistance to developing countries ▪ Collection and dissemination of information on global ICT networks, applications, and services • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) o Fundamental purpose is to contribute to peace and security, and to further universal respect for justice, the rules of law, human rights and fundamental freedoms by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science, and culture o To achieve this purpose, UNESCO was given a mandate to recommend international agreements to promote the free flow of ideas b word and image, in order to advance mutual knowledge and understanding among people through mass communication media • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) o 184 member States in 2009 o some 250 organizations accredited observers at formal meetings of its Member States o These organizations include international and national NGO’s and industry groups, as well as other inter-governmental organizations o WIPO also engages informally with both accredited and non- accredited stakeholder groups through consultative processes o The protection of intellectual property in ICT and media content is an important part of WIPO’s work in its two main areas of activity – industrial property and copyright • World Trade Organization (WTO) 16 o There are binding WTO agreements in two major areas related to GMCP ▪ Telecommunication services, and ▪ Trade related aspects of intellectual property rights o These agreements are enforceable through the WTO Dispute Settlement Body, an arrangement that is unique among GMCP institutions • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) o Not-for-profit corporation established in 1998 following a review by the US Department of Commerce, of policy and organizational options for managing and coordinating the use of resources that are critical to the stable and secure functioning of the Internet o Two of these resources are particularly important to GMCP ▪ The Internet Protocol (IP); addresses that are uniquely assigned to devices connected to the Internet ▪ Domain Name System (DNS); translates numerical IP addresses into ordinary language equivalents through hierarchical naming system that begins with generic top-level domains, such as .com, .ca, etc. Evolutionary Model for GMCP Institutions; Don MacLEan (2011) Global Communication and Fragmentation of Public Sphere Objectives • Upon completion of this course the student will have a better understanding of; o The notion of public sphere in the digital era 17 o The transformation of the role and action of media within the digital o The representation of different actors within the digital era Audiences • Traditionally, media consumers were classified as ‘audiences’ – a word which carries specific implications; o Typically, an audience is seen as being a passive receptor of information – the listener or the viewer o While an audience may engage in interpretation of meaning, the ideal audience is the one that calls the least attention to itself The Public; Jurgen Habermas • The audience is subordinated to a structure • The public is by definition possessed of agency • Habermas developed the notion of the public sphere as the coming together of private individuals to discuss and debate questions of authority, governance, and commodity exchange o Important for members of the public specter to be able to enter into this participatory position free of the constraints that are imposed upon them in daily life; whether economic, social, educational etc. o This last criterion highlights a challenge inherent in our understanding of the public sphere: in principle, anyone can enter the public sphere in order to participate • Public Sphere; o A realm of our social life in which something approaching public opinion can be formed. Access is guaranteed to all citizens o A portion of the public sphere comes into being in every conversation in which private individuals assemble to from a public body o They behave neither like business of professional people transacting private affairs, nor like members of a constitutional order subject to the legal constraints of a state bureaucracy o Citizens behave as a public body when they confer in an unrestricted fashion; with the guarantee of freedom of assembly and association and the freedom to express and publish their opinions about matters of general interest • Debate as to whether or not privacy exists in the public sphere 18 o The discussion of a public matter makes it relevant to the public sphere o It is not because we are part of the public that we have an opinion, if you have an opinion it can be discussed in the public sphere because it is a public issue Representative VS. Reasoning Publics; Javnost (2009) Representative Reasoning Attributes Arguments Staging of Personality Justification of Individuality Distinctiveness Equality Show, Image, Aura Critique, analysis, investigation Appearance Existence Top-down, Vertical Bottom-up, Horizontal Contemporary Dynamics • Newspapers and magazines, radio and TV are the media of the public sphere o These spaces refer to the political public sphere o The literary sphere is when public discussion deals with objects connected to the activity of the state • Although state authority is the ‘executor’ of the political public sphere, it is not a part of it Media in the Digital Sphere • Media as o primary information sources and storytellers o forums for social dialogue • It requires open mass media systems that are fully accessible • Ownership and control should be divers • Citizens first, then consumers The Virtual Sphere 2.0 • As individuals become more comfortable with online media, newer appropriations of the internet suggest interesting trends that pull us farther away from the public sphere ideal to a direction that is meaningful, but not what we may have expected • With the advent of the internet, the collective mainstream nature of the hitherto mass-mediated public sphere becomes more in tune with the thesis 19 on ‘individualization’ in modern society; Bauman (1992) & Beck and Beck- Gernsheim (2002) Civic Narcissism • The Culture of Narcissisim – Christopher Lasch (1979) o Described a self-centered culture that emerged following the political turmoil of the sixties, focused on self-improvement, ‘wrapped in rhetoric of authenticity and awareness’ and signifying ‘a retreat from politics and a repudiation of the recent past’ • Personalization o The ability to organize information based on a subjective order of importance determined by the self, presents an operative feature of online media like the internet o Popular features of the internet, like blogs, Twitter etc. are personal/private spaces that thrive on personalization • Interaction and participation are enhanced by comparison with reception, subjective preferences and viewpoints are more easily articulated and linked to others, reproducing webs inter-subjectivity Social Media Transformation • The diversity of communication on the internet is in part caused by; o A) anonymity and quasi-oral styles of communication opening the way for extreme viewpoints, uncivil characteristics, unconventional ways of argumentation, o B) diversity of communicative forms and genres (in social media like Facebook, Twitter etc.) o C) diversity of inter-textual connection among online forums (hyperlinks, social media, search engines etc.) Two Main Dimensions; Rasmussen (2013) • Understanding the ‘fragmentation’ of the internet more maturely and sociologically • Two dimensions distinguish the new public sphere related to the topics, styles, and the participants involved, which serve different democratic functions; o Representational; the broad representation of heterogeneous topics, styles and groups which have never been present in conventional mass 20 media, only in rather peripheral social settings (clubs, unions, therapy groups, parties etc.) ▪ ‘the price for the welcome increase in egalitarianism due to the internet is a decentering of models of access to unedited inputs’ – Habermas (2008) ▪ in this medium, the contributions of intellectuals can no longer constitute a focal point o Presentational; the deliberation over some common issues by central figures in leading media, acting as, and replacing, the voices of the people ▪ The vocal elite of intellectuals draws on representational interaction, transforming and narrowing it into statements which set the public agenda and act as a simulation of a public opinion vis-à-vis formal political decision-making • This two-layered expansion and differentiation can be seen as the prime structural transformation of the public sphere today Representation in the Digital Era; Norris (2001) • The internet has been analyzed mainly as an instrument for strengthening the participatory elements of democracy o It has the potential to again turn the citizens more active and to confront their representatives with the direct voice of the people (As expressed in dialogue forums and new forums of e-governance) Representation of the Diversity of Speakers • While traditional media works towards unitary representation of the members of the political community, the Internet systematically promotes diversified representation of its multiple users – Cheong et al. (2008) • National print and audiovisual media constitute the central arena of public visibility and competition among national political actors that are represented by the journalists • The internet has outmoded this function of general interest intermediaries, who select, frame and interpret political news and who speak to the ‘whole of the nation’ Representation of the Diversity of Publics 21 • The web has become a big opportunity for the ‘unrepresented’ minorities to enhance their public status, but for many, it has also reduced the scope of communication and the chances of finding public resonance o Public distinctiveness results in a net loss of publicness • The digital public sphere further falls apart into a growing number of user communities, discussion groups or public enclaves • These ‘multiple publics’ have different degreed of openness and accessibility: many of them retreat into the semi-private sphere, protecting their spaces through passwords or accession fees, others distinguish between member sphere and open spheres, others, again, launch their messages into the open space overloading the web with information Fragmentation of the Public Sphere • Early analysts of the Internet spoke of a new digital divide that would accentuate the stratification of the public sphere between privileged users and illiterate masses – Norris (2001) o Such fears are largely ungrounded • There is plenty of evidence to the contrary that the internet has dramatically lowered the costs on information ad enhances the capacities of resource poor groups to participate – McNAir (2005) • Contemporary critics rather speak of the danger of a new fragmentation of the public sphere, observing the absence of horizontal interaction between the segregated user communities Diffusion of ICTs ICT and Political Engagement; DiGerraro & Dutten (2006), and Norris (2001,2) 22 • The impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on political engagement of the population, has two main theories o The Reinforcement Theory; argues that while the internet may expand and decentralize communication patterns, making information accessible to more people, it will continue to primarily benefit those who are already participating, namely ‘elite’ who have greater access to the technology and who are already highly politically interested – Bimber & Davis (2003) ▪ Believes politics on the internet is merely an extension of off- line politics and will fail to alter established power structures o The Mobilization Theory; believe that the internet will enfranchise those who have been traditionally marginalized by bringing them into the political process and thereby enhancing democracy – Winneg (2009) ▪ Internet is an important mobilization tool; • Reduces the cost of political efforts • Promotes collective identity • Creates and maintains networks Slacktivism • Portmanteau words for activism & slacker • Actions performed via the Internet in support of a political or social cause but regarded as requiring little time or involvement (e.g. signing an online petition of joining a campaign group social media website, ‘liking’) o An easy way to support a cause without actually acting for social change • Georgetown University Research Project; o Found that those who support a cause online (SM campaign group joiners), as opposed to someone who supports offline (paper petition signers) are; ▪ 2x more likely to volunteer their time for the cause ▪ 4x more likely to follow up by contacting a decision-maker ▪ 5x more likely to recruit others Interactivity Models • In electronic communications, interactivity is the dialogue that occurs between a human being and a computer program 23 o Programs that run without immediate user involvement are not interactive; they’re usually called batch or background programs Direction of Communication One -Way Two -Way High FeedbackMuPPal Discourse Level of S R Receiver ContrMonologResponsive Dialogue Low S R S R S = SFig– Fo ur-Interactivityerarticipant (sender/receiver roles are interchangeable) Cosmopolitan Self-Description • Finally, the emergence of the Internet made is necessary to readdress the normativity of the public sphere and to adjust its standards to a changing media reality • The traditional ideal of unity, consensus and integration would lead to a normative overstretch in negotiating the diverse aspects of a cosmopolitan order • A new normative template is applied by emphasizing diversity and cosmopolitan values Towards a Global Newsroom • Digital media makes space for global news production and distribution • The optimistic assumption is that online news-making would open new spaces of transnational democracy linked to the emergence of a global public sphere • This potentiality of a global public sphere supported by digital media is, however, at odds with the persisting fragmentation of our political spaces Dominance of Traditional News Media as Information Provider • The monopole of traditional news media as the main information providers of the national public sphere is not broken • Internet news is frequently a ‘waste product’ of mainstream print and television news The digital media have introduced a new divide between institutions of news production and channels of distribution, but they have less affected the pace in which political news unfolds and finds Political Economy of Global Communications Objectives 24 • Have a clear understanding of the notion of political economy applied to communication • Increased knowledge of how the digital capitalism is functioning • A better comprehension of the economic impact of global communication Processes • They are three processes that make a starting point of the political economy of communication: Commodification • The process of transforming things valued for their use into marketable products that are valued for what they can bring in exchange o Example; the process of turning a story that friends enjoy into a film or novel to be sold in the marketplace Dual Significance • Process of commodification holds a dual significance for communication research: o First, communication practices and technologies contribute to the general commodification process throughout society o Second, commodification is an entry point to understand specific communication institutions and practices • Commodification applies to audiences as well as content Spatialization • Process of overcoming the constraints of geographical space with, among other things, mass media and communication technologies o Ex; television overcomes distance by bringing images of world events to every part of the globe and companies increasingly use computer communication to organize business on a worldwide basis, thereby allowing them greater access to markets and the flexibility to move rapidly when conditions make it less favorable for them to stay in one place Spatialization & Communication • Communication is central to Spatialization because communication and information technologies and processes promote flexibility and control throughout industry, o particularly within the media, communication, and information sectors • Spatialization encompasses the process of globalization, the worldwide restructuring of industries, companies, and other institutions 25 Structuration • Process of creating social relations, mainly those organized around social class, gender, and race o Ex; how the digital divide is the result of inequalities in income and wealth which enable some to afford access and other to be left out Political Economy Definition • The study of the social relations, particularly the power relations, that mutually constitute the production, distribution, and consumption of resources, inducing communication resources o HOW are these goods produced, distributed, and consumed? ▪ Production is economic, and, ▪ Distribution is political, looks at the principles of justice o The concept of power is at the center of that definition and can be understood as the operation that addresses how people get what they want even when others do not want them to get it • The study of how values of all kinds are produced, distributed, exchanged, and consumed (the economic); • The PS is about how power is produced, distributed, exchanged and exercised (the political); • And how these aspects of social life are organized and enacted at any given place and time in history Characteristics • Political economy can be seen as the study of control and survival in social life: o Control: refers specifically to how a society organizes itself, manages its affairs and adapts, or fails to adapt, to the inevitable changes that all societies face o Survival: how people produce what they need to reproduce themselves and to keep their society going Political Economy of Communications Defined • Concerned with understanding how communication figures in political economic formations more generally o “communication” is the movement of meanings between people o “communications” or “communication technologies” are the means by which those meanings are moved Two Dimensions, Political Economy of Communication; McChesney (2000) 26 • First; it addresses the nature of the relationship between media and communication systems, and the broader social structure of society o Examines how media and communication system and content reinforce, challenge or influence existing class and social relations o Interested in how economic factors influence politics and social relations • Second; the political economy of communication looks specifically at how ownership, support mechanisms (e.g., advertising) and government policies influence media behavior and content o This line of inquiry emphasizes structural factors and that labor process in the production, distribution and consumption of communication Focus • The focus in the political economy of communication is on; o How media and communication systems and content do certain things, reinforce influence to existing class and social relations, with special focus on the role of economic factors o And, how ownership supports mechanisms and government policies influence media behavior and content Communication and Economics • Economics often provides microanalysis of how media firms and markets operate but, like the filed of mainstream economics, it assumes the existing social and class relations are a given, and a benevolent one at that • Communication policy studies the influence of government policies on media performance, but the work generally presupposes the necessary existence of the market and the broader social situation as the best of all possible worlds Media Economics • Aims to broader understanding and discussion of the impact of economic and financial activities on media operations and managerial decisions • Typically, the concern is how media industries and companies can succeed, prosper, or move forward Political Economy of Globalization • The global integration of corporate, government, and social class structures is a work in progress o It is fraught with risks, tensions and contradictions 27 o Considerable opposition; evidence in the rise of social movement that have protested this development at meetings of international agencies like the World Trade Organization (WTO) and other international bodies like the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) Restructuration of Governance • Globalization and industrial restructuring mutually influence four major patterns of government restructuring; • Commercialization; establishes state of functions o such as providing mail and telecommunication services, principally along business or revenue generating lines • Privatization; takes this a step further by turning these units into private businesses • Liberalization; gives the state’s approval to opening markets to widespread competition • Internationalization; links the state to other states thereby shifting economic and political authority to regional authorities that bring together several countries in one geographical area Shift from Old – New Media • Political economy has tended to give considerable attention to describing and analyzing capitalism o A system that turns resources like workers, raw materials, land, and information into marketable commodities that earn profit for those who invest capital into the system • Political economists of communication have focused on media, information, and audiences as resources and charted the ways in which they are packaged into products for sale Capitalism and Ideas • Capitalism is based on the market and a system of private property • Both require legal controls that set limits on what people can do o Copyright, trademark, and patent law constrain people’s use of information and ideas that others own • Markets establish the value of products including the information products that are increasingly prominent today Digital Capitalism 28 • The architects of digital capitalism have pursued one major objective: o To develop and economy wide network that can support an ever- growing range of intra-corporate and inter-corporate business process o To create a system meant that the foundations of the world’s electronic information infrastructure had to be recast o The new network system, within which the Internet looms largest in the mid-1990’s, required a sweeping metamorphosis of the structure and policy of existing telecommunication Internet Costs • The global dimension of the Internet is furthered and supported by another unique feature of the net – its cost and billing structure • Since its inception, Internet traffic has been billed either as a flat fee or based on time and volume • Distance has never been a factor in the cost structure, Thus. Going global for communication partners on the Internet is natural Economic Impacts • Internet initial public offerings (IPO’s) pushed the stock market to new heights • Start-ups such as Amazon, Ebay, Facebook, etc. gained double-digit billion- dollar market valuations, surpassing many long-established global brands • In February 2016, Google became the biggest corporation in the world, surpassing Apple • The digital networks, with their communication infrastructure and rich, flexible content, have turned into important sources of economic growth Consequences • Some of the most basic of these consequences are felt by affected societies with governments forced to react to them o Ranging from the dependency on network infrastructures for societal growth and well-being to changes in the global economic order, from consequences for domestic governance to potential power shifts in international affairs Networks Dependency • With digital networks taking an ever more prominent role in our daily lives, from work to leisure, our society as a whole will become more dependent on the network, its functioning and integrity. 29 o the increase in dependency will coincide with an increase in vulnerability as the network standards are as robust and decentralized as they are insecure and open Convergence and Mass Customization • There is no doubt that global networks supplement international trade and economic globalization, as they lower the cross-border transaction costs for advertising, marketing, and ordering. • Digital networks provide the framework for moving the economy from mass production to flexible production and mass customization Virtual Communities • The Internet pricing model, with its disregard for distance facilitates the development of the “information economy” o moving from delivery of actual goods to delivery of information across networks, issues of product distribution infrastructures • Governance based on geographic proximity, territorial location, and exclusivity of membership to such physical communities will be fundamentally challenged by the advent of numerous non-proximity-based, overlapping virtual communities. Critical Perspectives Autonomists; Hardt et Negri (2011 & 2004) • Named because is starts from the autonomy of the working class • Maintains that capitalism is propelled by the energy and activity of those who work within it. o From this perspective, the focus needs to be placed on the self-activity and self-organization of the mass, the vast majority of people typically viewed as exploited from other critical perspectives. o Furthermore, the growth of communication and information technology does not just serve capitalism, it significantly disrupts it Challenges • According to autonomists, the widespread availability of information and communication technology makes it very difficult for capitalism to preserve 30 the legal regime of private property that historically limited flows of communication and information o Not only does technology challenge property and market rules, it enables people to disrupt the system just at a time when capitalism requires careful global coordination • Capitalism needs a highly educated workforce but such a workforce is less likely to cede control over thought and ideas to management than did its blue collar predecessors Post-Midterm Notes for Final Understanding Global Media Objectives • Identify ways that technology has helped speed globalization • Explain how media outlets use globalization to their advantage • Increase their knowledge of communication theories that addresses media globalization Mass Media and Globalization • Before 1990’s, most mainstream media were national in scope since then most communication media have become increasingly global • Rapid expansion of global communications can be traced back to the th th mechanical advancements of tech during the 18 /19 centuries o Began with the telegraph (1837) o Included growth in postal services, cross-border telephone and radio communications o And the creation of a modern mass circulation press in Europe (Matos, 2012) Understanding Media as a Cultural Product • Media is largely a cultural product, and the transfer of such a product is likely to have an influence on the recipient’s culture o Media has leadership in cultural sphere • Technology has also been propelling globalization creating tensions between high culture and anthropological culture: 31 o What is good vs. culture as lived experience • Technology allows for quick communication, fast and coordinated transport, and efficient mass marketing o These have allowed globalization- especially globalized media to take hold Characteristics of New Global Media • Rise of new media: internet critical revolution, social media • 6 Core Characteristics 1. Convergence of ICT, networks, content & chips 2. Digitization & Changeable content stored in small physical spaces or digital one (cloud) 3. Open, flexible, adaptable sharing & expansion (with protocols) 4. Reduced barriers for production & consumption (global implications) 5. Interactivity = constant re-using, re-mixing, re-purposing, modification 6. Many-to-many vs. one-to-many = less effective gatekeeping functions of powerful interest or media workers (i.e. journalism) Information and Globalization • The media industry is perfect for globalization/the spread of global trade without regard for traditional political borders • Low marginal costs of media mean that reaching wider market creates much larger profit margins for media companies • Information is not a physical good so, o Shipping costs are generally inconsequential • The global reach of media allows it to be relevant in many different countries Three Markets 1. Creative content a. material for exchange 2. Market for financial resources; a. Finance operations, investment, profits, public vs private 3. Market for audiences/readers/users a. competition for audience attention 32 Media Competition; Garnham (1987) • Companies & Industries compete in four ways; o For consumer expenditure o For advertising expenditure o For consumption time (attention economy) o For talents & specialist labor • Media industries operate in dual product markets: compete for time & money of end-users and compete in advertising markets selling access to those audiences to advertisers Global Media Finance • Global media organizations can finance their activities in 4 main ways; o Retained earnings (revenue & sales) o Debt Financing (bank loans) o Equity investment (sales of shares, listing) o Government financing (subsidy incentives) New Agencies and International News Flows • News agencies are seen as central to the globalization thesis o These are closely tied to the modernization of the West and the expansion of communication media since their emergence in the mid- 19 century • Role of news agency in Globalization: o Contribute to spreading a global agenda and creating perceptions of the South as being a place of corruption, coup and disaster for Western audiences Main Players • The 4 Key players who dominate the global dissemination of news and information, with many newspapers of news and information, with many newspapers and other organizations across the world depending on them for international news o Associated press o Reuters o United Press International o Agence France-Press (AFP) 33 Globalization and TIC • TICs have permitted a reduction in cost of Communicators-Computerized technologies, satellite TV and the internet o contributing to the reduction of costs and, o encouraging home made productions since everyone can publish information online • TIC’s have an impact on the ways in which societies, cultures and individuals function and understanding themselves The Internet and Anti-Globalization Movements • Internet as a counter-public sphere and political tool has had a significant role in; o facilitating the communication between groups, o assisting the activities, the communication between groups o assisting the activities of social movements in organizing ‘anti- globalization’ protests o mobilization of NGO’s, political parties, civil society groups and voters Globalized Culture, Globalized Markets; Santos (2001) • Much globalized media content comes from the West, particularly the states • Driven by advertising, U.S. culture and media have a strong consumerist bent o Thereby, possibly causing foreign cultures to develop these same consumerist ideals • Therefore, the globalization of media could not only provide content to a foreign country but may also create global demand for U.S. products and way of life Vertical Integration and Globalization • Media companies often benefit greatly o Because of the proliferation of U.S culture abroad, media outlets are able to use many of the same distribution structures with few changes o Because media rely on the speedy ability to react to current events and trends, a vertically integrated company can do all of this in a globalized rather than a localized marketplace 34 ▪ different branches of the company are readily able to handle different markets o Production values for single-country distribution are basically the same as those for multiple countries (Ex; a single film studio to make higher-budget movies than it may otherwise be able to produce without a distribution company that has a global reach) Horizontal Integration • Multinational corporations are becoming increasingly horizontally integrated o these companies both create content and own publishing companies or broadcasting networks, and are able to distribute their own product The Global Network of Communications • Enables international circulation of cultural commodities, texts, images and artefacts; o These are central to; Global commerce, o Global politics o Global ward and conflict o The globalization of organization communication o General global circulation of ideas, information and ideologies Media and Foreign Markets • Technology allows for quick communication, transport, and mass marketing o Contributes to a globalized
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