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Crim 1300 Midterm Review - mine.docx

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University of Ottawa

Crim1300MidtermReviewCriminologyA rendezvous point for many disciplinesProvides unique perspectives on issues of crime criminality criminal justice security and public safety Body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenonIt includes the processes of making laws breaking laws and of reacting to breaking of laws The objective is to develop the body of general and verifiable principles and other types of knowledge regarding the processes of law crime and treatment CrimeoAn act that violates the criminal law and is punishable with jail terms fines and other sanctions oIt is socially defined no behaviour is inherently goodevilScienceoDeductive oTesting predictive theorise based on observed data with the objective of improving theories predictive power PostModernoAnalytic oInductiveoLooking at the world to explain how we have gotten to where we are not whyTypology of TheoriesApproaches to Criminology Consensualist more perfect and fair society and the role of the law within it to be minor tweaking having on impact of the overall system as you can be consensualist and believe the system needs adjustment but you believe it is fixable rather than corrupt oThey believe the laws represent the will of most people in a particular society Conflict feel the law reflects power relationships in society as those with power use the law to help maintain their positionDenaturalization All aspects of society are social inventionsInventions should be maintained when useful but they should be changed when they are no longer useful Six Areas in the Discipline of Criminology The definition of crime and criminalsThe origins and role of law The social distribution of crime The causation of crime Patterns of criminal behaviour Societal reactions to crime Systems Analysis and Critique Cesare Beccaria oOn Crimes and Punishment 1764 one of the most influential texts of this classical school of criminology oConcerned himself with the question of how the criminal justice system ought best be structured in addressing the issue of crime oScience of criminal justice certain swift proportionatewhat works to control crime oNot particularly charismatiche stole many ideas from other scholars at the time and went on tour promoting these principleso Created an early science based on his deductive beliefs on what people are like to design a system for criminal justice that would best be controlled for groups and individualswasnt a good science based on his beliefsoCrime fitting punishment oWant to be uniformsimilar punishments for similar types of crime but have to consider characteristics of the individual oHe urged that social order be based upon the law the machinery of justice ought to be answerable to the rules of due process and sentencing policies ought to be tightly and specifically formulated to fit the crime What Makes Offenders OffendCesareLombrosooPathology of criminals oInsistence on the accurate and deliberate measurement of the physical anomalies of known criminals has established him as the first scientific criminologist Measures good or valid If we are looking of an earlier stage of human evolution is a tattoo valid measure of geneticsHe went around prisons and looking at military personalities and measured their heads ears noses looked at abnormal bumps on the head hands etc He said what are the differences what do we notice what patternsphysical indicators of certain people that shows us that they are from an earlier stage of evolutionatavistic characteristicscriminal o Lombroso is more consensualist and more micro oThe principles of the Italian school of positivism were gradually to become influential not only an intellectual circles but in the development of less uniform and more individually oriented forms of penal treatmentContext of the Rise of Criminology Birth of the nation state oShifting balance from private power to state power oThe majority of history in modern western society darkmiddleindustrial revolution mostly government by non state authority oWhile people in small scale societies were relatively equal to one another changes in methods of production led to new social formations in which some families and individuals gained greater access to material surplus Thus resulted in the growth of social power the stratification of society and the emergence of rulers this process gave rise to the development of the nation state
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