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University of Ottawa

CRM 1300 F January 7 2014first lecturecriminology is nothing like CSI it is more concerned with why crime happens why people commit crimes etc Why study criminology1 Important to provide insight into the social world2 Crime is a major concern to the general populationwhat is crimeCrime is difficult to define there are many varying views as to what crime should meanis crime anything that is defined in the criminal code law as above social processes law as the centre of criminologylegal moral social humanistic social constructionist laws are constantly changing we must adapt to the new views of what crime is Criminalscriminala person who has committed a crime a person who has been handed a guilty in a court regarding the commission of a crimeConsider the following offender kills victim during robbery soldier kills enemy soldier in war corporation dumps tonic waste that contaminates drinking water and kills peoplecriminalized person as opposed to criminal because it focusses on the action instead of the person themselvesQuick overview of the criminal justice system1 Policefirst in contact with criminal justice system many responsibilities keep peace respond to emergencies assist victims of crime responsible for initial arrest of people etc2 Courtsonce youve been detained by police you will have a trial 4 levels of courts in Canada judges within these courts listen to case and then decide what the punishment should be 3 Correctionscovers all levels of jails and prison forms of community corrections probations and bail house and superviseCrime models crime models1 Crime controlpolice have all the power can pull you over and search your car with no valid reason etc 2 Due processbalance between power of authority and our rights Police need reason to search you or accuse you etc without this balance the tendency for wrongful convictions is much higher Lecture two January 10 2014Dispute settlementMechanisms for dispute Mechanisms for dispute resolution have existed as long as humans have interactedthough not as formal lawModes of Production the dominant form of social and technical organization of economic production in a society Historically a variety of modes of production can be distinguished based on both technology and the structure of social relationships Hunter gatherer times and kinbased communities Survivalcooperation Characteristics of kin based communities collaborationequalitycommunicationcoercionconsensus group interestresolution of conflicts to get on with the business of living not getting over a problem could mean a lot of problems for the community even death scarcity Dispute resolution in Kinbased communitiesSelf or kin based redresscould involve any of the following options for resolution public criticism shaming rituals temporary ostracism permanent expulsion blood feuds and reprisal killingsinvolved scaled of punishmentagreement and fairness victim initiated Use of advisors of mediatorssome communities made use of advisors or mediators for dispute resolutiondisputants brought conflict to advisor advisor recommends solutionthreat of reprisalElders councils chieftainships and paramount chieftainships Kin based community organisation began to shift towards hieraticalstructures Tribalism where social bonds are based primarily on peoples real of assumed descent from an ancestor or groups of ancestors and this shared identification distinguishes the group from outsiders In such societies all social relationships tend to be quasifamilialEmergence of private property and inequality Elders councils elders councils made up of male representatives within the communitymore formalized practices decisions by the elders were considered final and binding followup appeals Chieftainshipschiefs were determined by influence with the community decisions made were bindingpower of enforcementposition of chief was permanenthelped to lay ground work for formalization of legal system Paramount chieftainships paramount chieftainships similar to the structure of kingdomsbrought together a number of partly autonomous villages or communities under hierarchical rule of grand chief use of a civil service paramount chief oversees court proceduresenforcement Feudalism system of economic and social organization found historically in several areas of the world The economic foundation of the system was the feudal manor that included a central farm owned by the landlord and small land holdings for a class of bonded farm labourers serfs The serfs were required to work the central manorial farm and to provide the landlord with produce and money payments in return for their right to use the land The system gradually declined as cities and towns grew and power became centralized in nationstates under monarchies
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