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CRM1300 Friday October 12thClassical schoolcriminals logically think about decisionsfree willface a little more pain from punishment than pleasure from the crimePositivist schoolthere must be something emotionally psychologically or physically wrong with criminal thats why they committed the crimewant to find out what is actually wrongsolve the problembiological determinism Rushtons racist theoryGroup and Social Structural FactorsSociological theories of crime controlcontainmentConsensusdriftneutralizationsubculturedifferential associationanomiestrainlabellingecologicalpluralist conflictcriticalradicalConflictFour Assumptions of Consensus Theories1every society is stable and persistent2every society is wellintegrated3every element in society contributes to the maintenance of the systemfunctionalism4society is based on shared valuesControlContainment TheoriesTheory 1examines ability to manage or restrain crimea form of socializationturns the question of crime causationwhy do we commit crime why dont we allhow can society prevent us from breaking the lawassumptions rooted in Classical Criminologywere all self seeking and capable of committing crimewe obey law only because were constrained into conformtysocietys problem is to control us and to prevent a war of all against allwhy do people conformWalter RecklesscontainmentTheory 2individual differences in out immunity to crime all experience pushespullstwo main kinds of controlCRM1300 1 Outer Controloriginates in group pressures from training a sense of identity and belonging2 Inner Controldevelopment of a crime fighting conscience 5 featuresgood self conceptgoaldirectedness lawful long range plansrealistic objectivestolerance of frustrationidentification with lawfulness belief in the systemthese theories are based on traditional crime no white collar or cyber crimeControlContainment 3Travis HirschiThe Social Bondour closeness to society saves us from entering into criminality4 components to the social bond1 attachmentsensitivity to opinion of others sense of obligation2 commitmentinvestment of time and energy in a chosen way of liferational component in conformity3 involvementbeing busy4beliefa sense that the legal system is justDriftNeutralization Theory1Main Assumptionsa more sophisticated form of control theorydont assume conforming vs non conformingmost of us learn norms and rules of society but criminals are able to rationalize and justify their actions and violationsGresham Sykes and David Matza explored the consciousness of delinquents subterranean valueswhat made them think it was ok to commit crimepeople who justify their behaviours may drift into a life of crimethere is no sharp distinction between criminals and noncriminalsTechniques of NeutralizationTheory 2good reasons to be criminal exist in public culture and lawall walks of lifeC Wright Mills vocabularies of motivecriminals pick up rationalizations that under some circumstances are legitimate excuses 7 selected techniques of neutralization1denial of responsibility pressured or provoked2denial of injury the harm was nonexistent or trivial3denial of a victim they deserved it4condemnation of the condemners the laws are unjust the state has no business5appeal to higher loyalties6self fulfillment personal growth and enjoyment7biological drives boys will be boyssubterranean values
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