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Criminology Review.docx

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Criminology ReviewWhat is policingPolicing is a process wilfully directed towards the production of order and proffering assurances of safety and security Policing takes care of law enforcement and crime detection to maintain peace safety and security What were the original Peelian aspirations for policing1The basic mission for which the police exists is to prevent crime and disorder2The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions 3Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observances of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public4The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force5Police seek and preserve public favour not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law6Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion advice and warning is insufficient7Police at all times should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police the police being only members of the publix who are paid to give fulltime attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence8Police should always direct their actions strictly towards their function and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary9The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with itIn shortaEvery police officer should be issued an identification number to assure accountability for his actionsbWhether the police are effective is not measured on the number of arrests but on the lack of crime Did policing develop as Peel intended How did we end up with professionalized policingIt did not In the next 150 years what developed in public policing was precisely the opposite of Peels initial stated vision We developed a hierarchical specialized isolated expert and reactive agency for law enforcement Much of this has to do with the authority and capacities as well as the legal constraints upon the public police Liberal democratic concerns to limit the capacity of the state to infringe on the liberties of its individual citizens significantly constrains what the police are able to do in terms of applying the law and deploying coercive force in particular situations This has played a major role in undermining the ability of the public police to achieve their Peelian ideal of crime prevention through carrying out an unremitting watch While the law imposes many such limitations on what the public police are actually able to do the law does not necessarily give positive instruction as to what they should be doing in particular situations This is where the issue of police discretion comes into playIn policing the following developed by the late 1960s a hierarchical organization that proved to be isolated and equipped with its own masculinist and authoritarian subculture that was a cold house for women minorities and poor persons The result was increasingly poor relationships between the police and large sections of their public Combined with a lack of impact upon crime rates and massive social transformation in the late 1960s we began to witness a revolution in policing Policing has since been in a permanent revolution How is professionalized policing different from community policingThe development of community policing was a response to the problems of professionalized policing The professionalized bureaucratic insulated model of policing was shown to produce all kinds of problems most especially in terms of impoverished relationships between the public police and minority communities It did not particularly reduce crime Community policing entails the public police to turn away from merely being the experts in law enforcement and to embrace a more general social services function in which they work with the public to produce order and offer assurances of security from merely enforcing the law to the development of broader problemsolving approaches to reducing crimes and harm in the future It relies upon organizational decentralization and a reorientation of patrol in order to facilitate twoway communication between the police and the publicFour Principles of Community PolicingaOrganizational DecentralizationbProblemoriented focuscResponding to the priorities of the publicdFacilitating neighborhood problemsolving
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