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READINGSNOTESCHAPTER1CRIMEFEARANDRISKThe ObjectivistLegal Approach OL APPRReferred to as value consensus or normative positionThe definition of crime is factual and preciseDefines crime as something against the lawoCrime is essentially a violation of legal statues crime is limited to its legal constructionoCrimes are limited to the contents of the Criminal Code of CanadaLaws are defined as widely shared values that are later coded into legal statutesPrimary question for ObjectivistLegal viewpoint WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOURoDifferent theories answer this question will be looked into w further detail later onCesare Lombroso 1911Studying inmate populations concluded that inmatescriminals were biologically inferior to noncriminalsCleckleys 1964Serious criminals thought to have a lack of shame or guiltGottfredson and Hirschi 1990Crime based on social consensus and crime is committed because of lack of selfcontrolCONCEPT OF LAWoThree typesAdministrative LawForm of public law that governs the relationships between individuals and the stateCivil LawDeals with disputes between individualsCriminal LawDeals with punishing certain acts that are deemed to be threatening to the established social orderoViolations fall into three categories in the Criminal CodeCrimes against the person homicide sexual assaultProperty crime theft over 5000 breakenterThings that are just plain wrong though no obvious victim is present living off avails of prostitution using illegal drugsoTo be found guilty a criminal action actus reus must be present as well as the intention to commit the crime mens reaoChildren under 12 and the insane are unable to form mens rea therefore cannot be criminally convictedCrime and Social ReactionOL approach defines crime to be as what the legal status defines it to be and the purpose of criminology is to find what causes crime so that methods to prevent crime can be implementedWasnt much debate about the way crime was defined until labelling theory came about
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