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CRM1300E - Sept 18.docx

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thCRMSept 18 2013Patterns of criminality and methods of gathering crime statistics Criminological Research Research Design Crime Patterns in Canada Official State Statistics Uniform Crime Reports Why Do Crime Statistics Change Victimization Surveys Crime RatesCriminological knowledge is based on science a logical organized method of obtaining information through direct systematic observation Scientific knowledge is based on emotional evidence information that is directly verifiable A Research Method is a strategy for systematically conducting researchConcepts variables and measurements Concepts are mental constructs that represent some part of the world inevitably in a simplified form Variables are concepts whose value changes from case to case Operationalizing a variable is the process of developing the measure to be used in gauging a variable Measurement and Relationship Measurement requires reliability the quality of consistent measurement and validity the quality of measuring precisely what one intends to measure Relationships among variablesCause and effect is a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in anotherCorrelation exists when two or more variables are related in some way Relationship between Variables Cause Effect Independent Variable Dependent Variable Limitations of Scientific Research Human behavior is too complex to allow criminology to predict any individuals actions preciselyBecause humans respond to their surroundings the mere presence of a researcher may affect the behavior being studied Social patterns change constantly what is true in one time or place may not hold in anotherBecause criminologists are part of the social world they study objectivity in social research is especially difficult Subjective interpretation is always an important element in criminology analysis
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