3 things hobbes bases his theory on >>
Men are driven by 2 desires
1 Happiness or desire for it ( but happiness is not a state, it’s a process) Happiness is
2 Desire for power & ability to do / get things done) (will always want more)
State of nature is like if the world went back to primal state & survival instinct (in
State of Nature and State of war are the same thing== NEED FOR GOVERNMNET.
1 No security, no certainty
2 No such thing as culture, art, science
3 No such thing as right and wrong (morality/immorality)
Life During was and state of nature is poor, nasty brutish and short. Scare society in order
to show what life would be like without government.
Solution to state of war for Hobbes is MONARCHY
A person chosen by the people
Chose them due to rationality and people are rational thinkers therefore was a
government in order to keep society out of a state of war.
Gives peace for everyone knowing that there is a good leader
* As soon as Govt is obtained, you are out of a state of war.
Characteristic of govt Force**. Law Requires Force
Things you cannot do once power is given to Monarch (Govt)
You cannot covenant with someone else unless you get permission from sovereign
You may not be freed from the sovereign rules
You must follow all sovereign rules
Sovereign may never breach a covenant ( promise to refrain or engage). Sovereign may
not do wrong. You are in contract with sovereign
They may never break rules, therefore the sovereign can never do wrong to his people
Social Contract Agreement of members of society between the government and the
governed. Defining and limiting the rights of each.
Hobbes believes that in monarchy you have to give the government power for the people.
If you have a government that doesn’t have force or power, its USELESS PROBLEM: Everyone is concerned for themselves. That is the reason the rational people
pick government in the first place. To PROTECT them. The monarch was once an
ordinary citizen as well and there fore there will be a conflict of interest
Legality functions with clarity of the law. If you know what you can and cant do, you
can plan your life. ** Ability to plan means that you are free.
In Hobbes world, we get THE SHORT END OF THE STICK
We do have rights BUT Rights are problematic when a Monarchy is in place because
there is often a CONFLICT OF INTEREST.
You have conflict with monarch
Monarch will not do what’s best for you, will do what’s best for them. Because
every man tries to protect themselves.
Crime Vs. Sin
Hobbes says Sin exists in a state of nature, it also exists in society.
Crime doesn’t exist in state of nature because there is no law. Crime comes only in
society because of LAW
Crime is not natural, Sin is Natural. Crime is our invention as man kind and it is artificial.
We will pick artificial, that is.. not in a natural states. Society is artificial and artificially
preserves life. But we will pick government and implication in