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Crim Final review.docx

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Carolyn Gordon

Part Aof Exam: Intelligence tests: • Science has manifested itself in a very abusive way in terms of crime and punishment • People had their lives destroyed • Reinforced that feebleminded people needed to be dealt with • Emerged based on the intent to help individuals by providing a measure to help those individuals who were struggling in school • It was originally used as an indicator to figure out who needed more help, however it turned into label that was used against these individuals who needed help • Labeling terms: imbeciles, morons, stupid, etc… • The Intelligence test was used to socially dismiss individuals who received a low score. • Contradiction with the Intelligence Test is that it was supposed to help those who needed help but instead it labeled them as stupid and shunned them in society • It was used on immigrants who just landed in the country, they were not yet settled in and did not even speak English, and it was used to determine what they were capable of doing • There was an interest of corresponding people’s mental capacity to their age Goring: • He was a student of Lombroso and was very concerned of the science of Lombroso • He made the same observations as Lombroso, but had more care into the study • He found there was a defectiveness in criminals but nowhere close to the bias extent as Lombroso • He looked beyond the physical traits that Lombroso had, but looked at the mental, moral and psychological traits Durkheim: • He draws our attention to positivism • Crime is normal under the circumstances of society • Crime gives us a sense of what is right wrong • When someone does something wrong it reminds us that what they are is wrong and wrong actions have consequences • Social superiority is problematic because it leads to judgmental attitudes • We come up with a dichotomy; us the innocent and them the criminals • Punishment should not always be a first resort to crime but a last resort • The ability to punish and coerce individuals serves as a reminder that the criminal is always inferior • There is a distinct label that doing crime labels criminals as wrong and bad people Attention reduction: • Crime or offending behavior or any deviant behavior helps release stress • Minor example to let out steam is swearing, and some people like to more physical not always to people directly, but the interactions can sometimes become violent and unintentionally hurt other people • Drug use can also be seen as a way to relieve stress, some people view it as a crime and for some people it is not a big issue Innovation: • Positive and significant • Example of it was Rosa Parks; she brought very significant changes in our legislation for actions that were not actually deviant or criminal but at the time the actions were deemed criminal. Durkheim onAnomie: • Concept that try’s to make sense of the deeper issues of the anomic state • The idea of ‘whatever’is an element of what is being offered • It is less predictable and very interrelated • Unlike crime, anomie was a fundamental problem in society • There were a lot of consequences of anomie in society, functional behavior. • Some peoples response to the chaos in their lives could result in crime • Suicide was a major problem in which he did a lot of research into • Some positives benefits to crime is the learning aspect of crime • Working within the positivist paradigm through the notion of determinism Limitations of his analysis: • Recognizing that his approach is very impersonal system • He cared more about the impact that the social system has on people’s lives in terms of crime • Considered to be conservative, not questioning the structure and assumes that we run under consensus Psychiatric explanations of crime: Phrenology: • The detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium (brain) as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities • The brain is the organ of the mind • The exterior was the skull and the interior was the brain • Moral and intellectual faculties were innate (inborn or existing at birth) • The form of the skull represented and reflected the form and development of the brain • Faculties was the shape of the skull, underdeveloped faculties meant there were protrusions in the skull Lumps and bumps Psychiatry: • Insanity meant there was no Mens Rea in court and the people took no responsibility for what was done • Mental illness was within the individual (they were born with it) there were no physical signs of mental illness and it needed to be diagnosed Assumptions of Mental Illness: • It was a disease • People with mental illness had different behavior • They were potentially dangerous • Involuntary (done without will or conscious control) confinement was justified • The treatment was not negative History of Mental Illness: • In the middle ages people with mental illness were considered to be lunatics, possessed by the devil • Confinement was almost like a daycare, having someone watching you at all times Pinel: • Enlightenment enthusiast • He came up with a new hope, he developed a cure • He observed patients in an asylum and he would than classify them • Patients received treatment based on their classification Causes of Madness: • Heredity- the mental illness genes were passed on through birth • Social environment- depending on where you lived and your social class • Spasmodic passions were suppressed by antispasmodic tactics (giving patients opium was one way) • Oppressive passions- moral treatment for alleged lunatics was achieved by solitary confinement Pinel’s Classifications: • Melancholia • Dementia • Idiocy • Mania Pinel’s Treatment: • TheAsylum (mental hospital) was the ideal place to treat patients • Segregation from social influences, untrained family and sources of passions • Large concern with resting the mind • Doctors were friends but firm at the same time • Work was also regulated into life Link to Criminality: • Psychiatry determined that crime is madness and is a treatable disease • Insane people are not responsible • It was encoded in laws that you are sane until you are proven insane • Disease of mind causes criminality • There were specific facilities for the criminally insane • Crime was a sickness and there was a hope for a cure • Lobotomies (scraping the connection with the brain to everything else) and electric shock were used as a ‘cure’ Psychiatry: • Was a branch of medicine which studied and provided treatment for mental illness th • In the 19 century the asylum was used for a new opportunity for observation, treatment, and training • 20 century treatment expanded outside the asylum and into private practice Psychology: • Study of the human mind and its functions that affect behavior Personality of the offender: • Personality was a set of emotional and behavioral attributes that remain constant • There was a claim that criminal behavior originates in the personalities of offenders Freud: • Organic disorders: a person suffering from an illness withdraws interest from the external world to the extent that it no longer exists, making them crazy • Functional disorders • Unconscious and conscious • ID: Biological and psychological drives • Superego: conscience • Overdeveloped superego is excessive guilt and anxiety which lead to criminal act • Ego: personality, criminality comes from aggression or withdrawal Table she wants us to know Demonology Classical Positivism Marxism Time period 500-1500 1500-1800 1800-1900 1840-1970 SOC/ECO/POL Feudalism Demographic/political/ Intellectual changes Rise of class context economic/religious/ Age of science based society intellectual changes Civil unrest Major Aquinas Beccaria Bio- Lombroso Marx Theorists PSYCH- Freud SOC- Durkheim Theory (causes Consensus Consensus Consensus Conflict of crime) Possession Free choice-breaking Bio- defect in mind theory by the devil of the social contract and body Capitalism and sin Ideology controlled by PSY- Child hood itself is Ideology was law trauma criminal controlled by Class SOC crime is a the church function of society divisions lead Ideology controlled by to crime medicine and science Ideology is controlled by political and economic analysis Criminal Administered Predetermined Treatment-rehab Socialist justice policy by church to proportional protection revolution get rid of sentencing Bio-fix individuals devil through Increase of police and PSY- therapy torture prisons SOC- crime serves as a function Key Concepts Heresy Rational hedonism Determinism, Historical Possession Freewill treatment, rehab, materialism Homage Social contract society protection, Conflict vs psychiatry, phrenology consensus Feudal General and specific Psychology, deterrence Capitalism Panopticon anthropology, atavism, Ideology
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