-Concepts: terms that convey meanings: theories work with base concept to relate them to their theories
-Variables: unchanging or changing phenomenon: some issues remain constant, other variables are
Statement: relationship between variables, the main explanation being provided also giving a solution
to the given problem.
-Social situation is to identify a certain issue that is a concern that requires explanation and a
-concepts: identify the concepts that help explain the issue. Recognizing certain concepts we think are
-Hypothesis: a guess potential relationships between issues.
-Theory: provides us with reality. Provides us with a set of tools to work with, provides a cecipe for
action to apply the solution.
Criteria of Good Theory:
-Testability: should be able to test it and see if a theory can be moved
-Logical Soundness: relationships must be logical otherwise it will receive lots of criticism
-Make sense out of conflicting positions: are we learning something new, and awareness component.
-popularity: if it is not in sync with with the time it wont be successful.
-Beyond common sense; research based
-transferability: expectation that theories are transferable for change and to draw upon their solutions
Context of theory creation:
-Social context: what was going on at the time about the social, political and economic that made a
difference how people are effected and how it has an impact on peoples theories.
personal context: the schools of thought that made theorists come to their conclusions, personal
experience will have an outcome of what they explore.
Theory: a statement to help us understand and explain what is occurring
Paradigm: are an en-composing of theories but have an umbrella of many other theories that make them
-oldest known perspective, was not organized
-deviance is defined by sin
-cause is supernatural, there was a fear of supernatural
-sacrifices to the supernatural (god), religiously based Classical CRM:
-the industrial revolution: factory based economy not agriculturally based, opening of markets within
-Economic growth: there was a change in terms of labor, looking to be as profitable as possible whether
it means poor working conditions, long hours, minimal pay
-Class devisions: traditional control is ineffective because we have a lot of people being moved into
urban areas. New needs and demands of the population.
Shift from discipline of the body to discipline of the mind
Main Historical Periods:
-Secular authority: fairly organized for its time
-roman law: 12 tablets codified, tablets explained the socially acceptable behaviours to society
-Deviance: what threatened the social order at the time was anyone who questioned the legitimacy of
-christianity was a threat
Punishments: burning, cooking, stoning, lime pits, drowning, flogging, crucifixion, entertainment
(lion's den) and slavery
-4/5 centuries, the dark ages
-conversion to christianity
-society's success was based on the success of agriculture
-kings were the national rulers but the church had the real power
-deviance is a displeasing of god:
-temptation: people were selfish and the individual had the choice to sin
-Possession (evil): individual has lost the ability to make their own choices.
-the role of justice is to establish guilt
-trials by fire, water or combat and if the person survived they were innocent and if they died they were
-Confessions determine guilt and innocence was problematic because living conditions were poor and
wounds could kill people. To get a confession people were seriously hurt or even killed. The person
could be innocent but there in order to stop the torture you must confess to the crime
-Iron Maiden: a tomb with spikes on the inside that closes on a person until they confess or die.
-Rack: contraption in which the person lies across the table, ankles and wrists bound at each end and a
wheel pulls them across barbs.
Thumbscrews: an excruciating pressing down of body parts.
Bridle: used as torture tool, applies pressure to the tung/mouth. Primarily used by men to punish their
wives, to maintain control
-ducking stool: individual is ducked under water until they confess or die.
-Flogging: whipping, breaking of the skin and done in public.
-Branding: punishment that was visibly seen by others to shame a person in public.Also a deterrent to
let people know what happens
-mutilation: retribution, punishment correlates with the crime, steeling; hand gets cut off, not listening
in church; ears are cut off.
-capital punishment: often resulted in death although not primary goal. -Pillory and stocks: example of the ways in which people were displayed, done on market or church
Purpose of punishment:
education, pain (mental & physical), penance for sin, to set things right and to cleanse evil.
-ongoing contest between church and monarchy, monarch fighting for authority with logic rather than
faith. Focus on logic and rational thinking, with the increasing dependancy on logic we see the
challenges in relig