Study Guides (238,528)
Canada (115,195)
Criminology (514)
CRM2301 (40)
All (9)

CRM Midterm 1.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Ottawa

Criminological Theories IMidterm 1Chapter 1 Introduction to TheoryTheory meets two criteria 1 the use of objective evidence and systematic observation 2 a rational explanation of that evidenceTheories about the effect of social structure on crime rates are abstractTheories allow us to develop and test potential solutions to problems we encounter in lifeTheories explain how two or more events are related to each other and how the conditions under which the relationship takes placeSystematic observation observation made through the use of certain rulesA good theory one that can be tested and that best fits the evidence of research Criteria for the utility of a theory logical soundness means that the theory does not propose illogical relationships and that it is internally consistent the ability to make sense out of several conflicting positions means that evidence seems to indicate that there are two or more opposing facts a theory that can reconcile those facts is a good one and is better than having different theories to account for each fact and sensitizing ability refers to focusing peoples attention on a new or even forgotten direction of inquiry or perhaps suggesting a different way of looking at and interpreting a fact they already knowPopularity is an indicator of a good theoryKinds of theoriesunit theories emphasize a particular problem and make testable assertions of that problemmetatheories rarely testable and best viewed as ways of looking and interpreting reality theories about theoriesmacrotheories broad in their scope and explain social structure and its effects They focus on rates of crime epidemiologymicrotheories a particular way of characterizing society characterization is then used to explain how people become criminals etiology Focus may be on small specific groups of people or the individualbridging theories attempt to tell us both how social structure comes about and how people become criminal often both epidemiological and etiologicalMost theories use a system of three basic types of theories biological psychological socialClassification schemesclassical focus on legal statutes governmental structures and the rights of humans The theory is concerned about the essence of the humans conditionpositivist focus on pathology in criminal behaviour on treatment and on the correction of criminality within individualsstructure focus on the way society is organized and its effect on behaviour some are referred to as strain theoriesprocess attempt to explain how people become criminalconsensus those based on the assumption that there is agreement among people in societyconflict the assumption that disagreement is common and people hold conflicting values1THEORYRESEARCHPOLICY linear model with feedback between the research and the theoryChapter 2 The Classical SchoolCesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham opposed the arbitrary nature of the criminal justice system of the time They proposed that both the law and administration of justice should be based on rationality and human rightsMajor concepts humans are freewilled rational beings utilitarianism the greatest good for the greatest number civil rights and due process of law rules of evidence and testimony determinate sentencing deterrenceSocial heritage arose during the beginning of the Industrial Revolution societies becoming urbanized rule of the Church threatened people began to understand the success of hard work era of great thought and expressionIntellectual heritage the Naturalists a group of philosophers believed experience and observation could determine much about the world moralethicsresponsibilities were great topics government as a social contract emphasis on human dignity stemming from the EnlightenmentPerspective of the schoolhedonismseek pleasureminimize pain used as a theory of human nature and this helped shape legal structureslaw was to protect the society and the individual but its main purpose was deterrenceBentham punishment was evil and the only reason for it was deterrencetwo forms of deterrence specific for that individual and general for potential offendersthree components to deterrence celerity the speed in which a punishment is applied certainty making a punishment sure to happen severity the amount of pain to be inflictedall individuals equal before the lawdue process of law equality and evidence obtained from factsBentham divided offenses between private and public wrongsagainst the person and against propertyBentham created the felicific calculus an elaborate schedule of punishments designed to take into account a combination of pleasure pain and mitigating circumstancesBeccaria specifically decried the use of torture in interrogation to elicit confessions and supported time limits on case preparation for both sides and opposed to conviction awaiting trialopposed capital punishment crime is a breach of social contract therefore a moral offence against societyChapter 3 The Positivist Schoolfocus on systematic observation accumulation of evidence and objective fact within a deductive frameworkthey reached out to order and explain the world around themsaw behaviourhuman nature as determined by its biological psychological and social traitsfocus on criminal behaviour2
More Less

Related notes for CRM2301

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.