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7. Midterm Review.docx

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University of Ottawa

Class1 Sep 10thPsychodynamicsfocus on the dynamics of the relationship between different parts of the psyche and the external worldRogersrejected hidden aspects of the psycho and concentrated on empirical studies Personcentered Original psychoanalysisPsychodynamicsHumanistic Behaviouralth Class 2 Sep 17 Freud was loved favoured cherished and ultimately molded into a scholar Freud did drugs likely the basis for his thought LibidoFreuds term DreamsRoad to the unconsciousfree association introspective anaylsis developed psychoanalysis Freudian slip Yung was a mentee but began to break away in 19 The war opened up Freuds mind to humans darkside and coined ErosThanatos Erosthe loving construvtive dirve Thanatosprimary need to destroy oneself or accept deathFreuds work was well ahead of his time and helped shape psychology as we see it todaystCounsellinghuge growth during 21 century some due to greater recognition that much of how people communicate is learned and that consequently they can change this for the better Expansion of counselling and professional psychotherapy association people wanted thisCounselling is not just something that happens between two peopleIt is also a social institution that is embedded in the culture of modern industrialized societies It is an occupation discipline or profession of relatively recent originsThe term counselling includes work with individuals and with relationships which may be developmental crisis support psychotherapeutic guiding or problem solving The task of counselling is to give the client an opportunity to explore discover and clarify ways of living more satisfyingly and resourcefully BAC 1984 Counselling denotes a professional relationship between a trained counsellor and a client It is designed to help clients to understand and clarify their views of their lifespace and to learn to reach their selfdetermined goals through meaningful wellinformed choices and through resolution of problems of an emotional or interpersonal nature Burks and Stefflre 1979 14 Its predominant ethos is one of facilitation rather than of advicegiving or coercion It is a service sought by people in distress or in some degree of confusion who wish to discuss and resolve these in a relationship which is more disciplined and confidential than friendship and perhaps less stigmatising than helping relationships offered in traditional medical or psychiatricClass 3 Sep 24Currently there are seven primary categories of counsellors1 Professional counsellors and psychotherapists Specialists who are suitably trained accredited and paid2 Paraprofessional counsellors People trained in counselling skills who use them as part of their jobs yet who do not hold an accredited counselling or psychotherapy qualification3 Voluntary counsellors People trained in counselling skills who work on a voluntary basis such as youth counselling4 Helpers using counselling skills as part of their jobsHere the main focus of the job may be nursing teaching preaching supervising or managing and provide services such as finance law funerals and trade union work These jobs require people to use counselling skills some of the time if they are to be maximally effective5 Peer helpersPeople who use counselling skills as part of peer helping or support networks Such peer support networks frequently cover areas of diversity such as culture race sexual orientation and sex6 Informal helpers All of us have the opportunity to assist others as a partner parent relative and friend peer7 Counselling psychotherapy and helping students Students using counselling skills on supervised placementsWho are counsellors and psychotherapists Increasingly counselling has come to be viewed as either the same or similar to psychotherapyOften the terms psychotherapy and psychotherapist are more used than counselling and counsellor in medical settings However there is a blurring of this distinction though most psychologist probably still view themselves as conducting psychotherapy rather than counsellingFurthermore the distinction between people who have mental disorders as contrasted with problems of living is not clearcut Consequently even in medical settings the term counselling may be just as appropriate as psychotherapyIn Britain they are eliminating the difference where as Canada still acknowledges some differences between psychotherapy and counselling For instance though work with clients may be of considerable depth the focus of counselling is more likely to be on specific problems or changes in life adjustment whereas psychotherapy is more concerned with the restructuring of the personality Psychotherapists are more likely to work very intensively with more deeply disturbed individuals who are frequently seen over a long period of time or on generalized problems and theoryCounsellors are more likely to work in specific areas where specialized knowledge and methods are needed for instance marital and family counselling and school counsellingTherapy benefits a great many people People go to therapy out of need or out of want or because they are obliged to ex offenders as part of their correctional planoften referred to as nonvoluntary or semivoluntary clients So why do some people seek therapy Some people go because they are finding it difficult to function in their daily lives It may be depressions stressanxiety marital problems parenting concerns eating disorders or a variety of other reasons that lead them to therapy These people go out of NEEDOn the other hand there are those who are simply interested in a deeper understanding of themselves or are in search of a stronger and more focused self They may be motivated to be better parents more loving spouses or just overall better people These people go out of WANT What happens in a counselling session In a typical counselling session clients are encouraged to talk in their own way and at their own pace about the issues that are causing them distressThe aim is to help them to examine their feelings thoughts and behavioursIt is imperative to establish a good report by giving good attention listening actively responding genuinely
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