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ECON 2147 Notes for Midterm Lecture 1-6

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J Ianweizhen

ECON 2147 NotesLecture 1Data Information and StatisticsData Raw material from which information is obtained taking various forms but often numericalOther forms of data exist such as radio signals digitized images and lasers patterns on compact discsInformation Data that have been recorded classified organized related or interpreted within a framework so that meaning emergesStatistics A common method of presenting information a type of information obtained through mathematical operations on numerical dataPlanning a SurveyAddress these issues Why is this survey being conducted Whom will the collected information be about What do i need to know How will the information be used How accurate and timely does the information have to beSurvey Objectives begins with objectives that describe why and for whom the survey is being done THe objectives also help determine the population to be targeted data requirements and the variables to be measuredTarget Population the population for which information is required Who to survey can differ from survey population the population actually completing the surveyData Requirements To determine what kind of data to collect and how will the collected information be usedSTEPS1 Choosing the type of data collection1 Census a survey that collects information from all the people in a group or population2 Sample Survey collects information from only a part of a population Possible to estimate results for a total population using data that is collected from a sample3 Administrative data collected through an organization and is used as an alternative to a survey2 Minimizing Error3 Sample Size4 Analysis Plan5 Questionnaire Design6 Data Collection Methods7 Data Processing Plan8 Quality control9 Analysis and Dissemination of ResultsSelection of a SampleSampling allows statisticians to draw conclusions about a whole by examining a part1 Establish the surveys objectives2 Define the target population3 Decide on the data to be collected4 Set the level of precision The Sample Design1 Sample Design how the sample will be collected2 Estimated techniques how the results from the sample will be extended to the whole population3 Measures of Precision how the sampling error will be measureda Determine what the survey population will beb Choose the most appropriate survey time framec Define the survey unitsd Establish the sample sizee Select Sampling methodThe Survey Frame Sampling Frame1 List Framesa list of names and addresses that provide direct access to ndividuals2 Area Frameslist of geographic areas that provide indirect access to individuals a list ofgeographic areas must be selected and then access to individuals within each selected area must be worked outThe Survey Units1 Sampling Unitpart of the frame and therefore subject to being selected2 Respondent UnitReporting Unit provide information needed by the survey3 The Unit of ReferenceUnit of analysis the unit about which information is providedused toanalyse the survey resultsThe Sample SizeThe Sampling Method1 Probability Samplingevery unit has a chance of being selected and that chance can be quantified2 NonProbability Samplingevery item in a population does not have an equal chance of being selectedSampling MethodsSimple Random Sampling each member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample each combination of members of the population has an equal chance of composing the sample You can also calculate probability of a given variable being selected Sample size n and the total population NProbability of being selected nN x 100Systematic Sampling Interval Sampling there is a gapinterval between each selected unit in the sample Steps to select a systematic sample1 Number your units on your frame 1 to N2 Determinethe sampling interval K by dividing theof units in the population by the desired sample size Then you select 1 after K units until you reach the number of units in the sample desired NnK3 Select the number between 1 and K at random this number is called the random start and would be the first number included in your sample4 Select every Kth unit after that first number random startTotal populationSample SizeSampling IntervalSampling with Probability Proportional to size requires that each member of the survey population have a chance of being included in the sample but it does not require that this chance be
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