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English 1100 Fall 2013 Thesis to Argument.docx

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English 1100 Fall 2013 Thesis to ArgumentI Subjectverb agreement 3934 parallelism 402 and mixed construction 41819 You have come to a conclusionthesis through narrowing the topic down forming an opinion and then doing some research to answer the question the thesis poses Now you need to effectively match the conclusion to the reasonsII Reasoning is the way we put claims and reasons together this follow from this We know what makes a good thesisconclusion a defensible claim about an issue but what makes a good reason and what makes a good relation between the reasons and the conclusion Arguments do not usually come at us in a clear relation of reasons to conclusions and we dont always present them so in an essay so we need to clearly understand the structure of an argumentexamples in discussion groupReasons are of two basic kinds reasons as ideas supporting one another if this then that or the evidence or facts that support the claim There are different kinds of reasoning or arguments Deductive Inductive and CausalA Deductive Arguments1Deduction proceed from general to specific It often begins with definition accepted facts or principles and then applies these to specific instances 2 The logical syllogism If whales are mammals they have lungs Therefore Whales have lungs3 Deduction produces truths that are necessarily true but only if the premises are true A valid argument is one in which a certain relationship holds between premises and conclusion If we grant the premises we must grant the conclusion Hence validity does not require that the premises of an argument to be true Yet if they are true and the argument is valid the conclusion must also be trueIn other words it is the structure of the deductive argument that makes it valid while the content of the premises make it a sound argument 4 Because deductive logic is categorical or definitional we do not learn anything new Deductive reasoning is like making a square peg to fit into a square hole while problems and issues in the real world never fit together perfectly Because it is the truth that we are ultimately after deductive logic needs to have its premises or evidence checked or validated5 Problems Overgeneralization examples circular reasoning examples See page 119B Inductive Reasoning
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