Part A: Definitions
New/ Formalist/ Close Criticism is a critical approach that analyzes, interprets and evaluates the inherent features
of a text. This kind of criticism requires close reading in order to discover how a work of literature functions as a
self-contained, self-referential object.
Intertextuality or Allusion (The Boat and the father’s books) is the shaping of texts' meanings by other texts. A
figure of speech or text that makes a reference to, people, places, events, or other literary works either directly or
by implication. It can include an author’s borrowing and transformation of a prior text.
Metafiction is the kind of fiction that consciously explores its own nature Green Grass, Running Water (pg. 234).
Historiographic Metafiction is a narrative technique of defining our myths in order to resist them in a self-
New Historicism is an exclaim that nothing can be made without the suggestion from its time.
Post-modernism is a literary movement that is self-reflexive and often involves contradictory acts of establishing
then undermining prevailing values and conventions, in order to provoke a question. Established values are rapidly
eroded by new technological advances, and therefore everything is a subjective view of experience rather than a
Post Colonialism (Squatters) is a part of Literary Theory focused on countries that were once colonies giving a
voice to the text, sometimes through the problems and consequences of post and de-colonization. Questions of
the political and cultural dependency of formerly subjugated colonial people are asked.
Magical Realism (GGRW) is a genre where magic elements are a natural part in an otherwise mundane, realistic
Liminality (Borders) is the state of being in-between standing at the threshold from a previously established
identity or community, and a new way that is yet to be established.
Gender Criticism/ Theory (Two Kinds)
Tone (The Wars) is a literary technique part of composition, which encompasses the attitudes toward the subject
and audience implied in a literary work.
Setting (The Boat) is the moment in time and geographic location and culture in which a story takes place. Helps
initiate the main backdrop and mood (also referred to as story world or milieu to include a