The Book of the City of Ladies
Christine de Pizan - The protagonist. Visited by 3 women representing Reason, Rectitude, and Justice. They help
her to counter the sexist claims popularly made by male writers of the day. They also debate and discuss the merits
and accomplishments of notable women, thereby constructing the titular City of Ladies.
Reason - Part One. Reason helps Christine de Pizan lay the foundation for the City of Ladies and constructs the
exterior walls for the city’s buildings. She discusses women who have distinguished themselves intellectually,
politically, and militarily. She also provides numerous examples of the prudence that women display.
- References to city of Troy, city of Thebes, Amazon kingdom and how they have fallen apart but her city will
- It is against nature for men to hate women because there is no stronger love than that between the two.
Rectitude - Part Two. Rectitude celebrates women as prophets, wives, and daughters, defends women against the
horrors of rape, and pleads the case for the constancy of her sex. She completes the various structures that make up
the City of Ladies and populates it with noble and upstanding women.
Justice - Part Three. Justice finishes the construction of the city—roofing the structures, adding the doorways and
gates, and then ushering in Virgin Mary, the Queen, and other holy women. She discusses the lives of women who
have martyred themselves for their faith.
Taking a break from her work, Christine de Pizan reads Matheolus’ novel that depicts immoral and inconstant
nature of women. A flash of light startles her, and three women, allegorical figures representing Reason, Rectitude,
and Justice, appear to her. They tell her she is to build the City of Ladies in the “Field of Letters” and populate it with
the noblest and most accomplished women the world has known. The city is to serve as a safeguard against the cruel
accusations of men as well as a reminder of the true and laudable nature of women.
Having completed the city, the three Virtues turn it over to Christine, who rejoices in all that they have accomplished.
Christine speaks to all women and declares the City of Ladies a refuge where they can find respite and safety from
the sexual aggression and cruel attacks by men. She reminds the inhabitants of this community of women to stay
strong and true and to uphold the noble virtues that have made the construction of the city possible. The city serves
as a testament to the power and unity of women and of their own high standards and unshakeable virtue.
Unnamed narrator - Husband of both Lady Ligeia and Lady Rowena. Unable to recall certain details about his only
love, Ligeia, the narrator keeps her alive in his memory after her physical death and his second marriage. Ligeia - The darkly beautiful and learned first wife of the narrator, Ligeia is a woman who returns from the grave.
After dying from a mysterious illness, Ligeia haunts her husband and his new bride, becoming part of the Gothic
decorations of their bridal chamber.
Lady Rowena - The blonde second wife of the narrator. Rowena’s cold English character contrasts with Ligeia’s
sensual, Germanic romanticism. Ligeia punishes Rowena’s lack of affection for the narrator by haunting the bridal
chamber and dooming their marriage.
Narrator is in love with Ligeia, who falls ill. She asks him to read a poem she has created about the natural tragedy of
life and she passes away at the end of it. The narrator moves to England and buys an abbey, where he marries Lady
Rowena. During his second marriage, he becomes addicted to opium. Lady Rowena also falls ill and narrator is
sitting by her bed watching her drinking a glass of wine, into which Lady Ligeia’s shadow pours in 3 or 4 drops of
poison. Few days later, Lady Rowena dies. However, she then comes back to life but as Lady Ligeia.
The Yellow Wallpaper
The Narrator - A young, upper-middle-class woman, newly married and a mother, who is undergoing care for
depression. The narrator—whose name may or may not be Jane—is highly imaginative and a natural storyteller,
though her doctors believe she has a “slight hysterical tendency.” The story is told in the form of her secret diary, in
which she records her thoughts as her obsession with the wallpaper grows.
John - The narrator’s husband and her physician. John restricts her behavior as part of her treatment. Unlike his
imaginative wife, John is extremely practical, preferring facts and figures to “fancy,” at which he “scoffs openly.” He
seems to love his wife, but he does not understand the negative effect his treatment has on her.
Jennie - John’s sister. Jennie acts as housekeeper for the couple. Her presence and her contentment with a
domestic role intensify the narrator’s feelings of guilt over her own inability to act as a traditional wife and mother.
Jennie seems, at times, to suspect that the narrator is more troubled than she lets on.
The narrator tells us that her husband got a summer home for them to go on vacation to. The
house is described as very big and aspects of it remind us of an insane asylum. The narrator
mentions that she is suffering from depression, and he practical husband who is a doctor
suggested a rest cure. She stays in a room, where she points out that the wallpaper is torn off the wall in
spots, there are scratches and gouges in the floor, and the furniture is heavy and fixed in place. It begins to resemble
a woman “stooping down and creeping” behind the main pattern, which looks like the bars of a cage. By the end, the
narrator is hopelessly insane, convinced that there are many creeping women around and that she herself has come
out of the wallpaper—that she herself is the trapped woman. She creeps endlessly around the room, smudging the
wallpaper as she goes. When John breaks into the locked room and sees the full horror of the situation, he faints in
the doorway, so that the narrator has “to creep over him every time!”
Victor Frankenstein - The doomed protagonist and narrator of the main portion of the story. Studying in Ingolstadt,
Victor discovers the secret of life and creates an intelligent but grotesque monster, from whom he recoils in horror.
Victor keeps his creation of the monster a secret, feeling increasingly guilty and ashamed as he realizes how helpless
he is to prevent the monster from ruining his life and the lives of others. The monster - The eight-foot-tall, hideously ugly creation of Victor Frankenstein. Intelligent and sensitive, the
monster attempts to integrate himself into human social patterns, but all who see him shun him. His feeling of
abandonment compels him to seek revenge against his creator.
Robert Walton - The Arctic seafarer whose letters open and close Frankenstein. Walton picks the bedraggled Victor
Frankenstein up off the ice, helps nurse him back to health, and hears Victor’s story. He records the incredible tale in
a series of letters addressed to his sister, Margaret Saville, in England.
Alphonse Frankenstein - Victor’s father, very sympathetic toward his son. Alphonse consoles Victor in moments of
pain and encourages him to remember the importance of family.
Elizabeth Lavenza - An orphan, four to five years younger than Victor, whom the Frankensteins adopt. In the 1818
edition of the novel, Elizabeth is Victor’s cousin, the child of Alphonse Frankenstein’s sister. Elizabeth embodies the
novel’s motif of passive women, as she waits patiently for Victor’s attention.
Henry Clerval - Victor’s boyhood friend, who nurses Victor back to health in Ingolstadt. After working unhappily for
his father, Henry begins to follow in Victor’s footsteps as a scientist. His cheerfulness counters Victor’s moroseness.
William Frankenstein - Victor’s youngest brother and the darling of the Frankenstein family. The monster strangles
William in the woods outside Geneva in order to hurt Victor for abandoning him. William’s death deeply saddens
Victor and burdens him with tremendous guilt about having created the monster.
Justine Moritz - A young girl adopted into the Frankenstein household while Victor is growing up. Justine is blamed
and executed for William’s murder, which is actually committed by the monster.
Caroline Beaufort - The daughter of Beaufort. After her father’s death, Caroline is taken in by, and later marries,
Alphonse Frankenstein. She dies of scarlet fever, which she contracts from Elizabeth, just before Victor leaves for
Ingolstadt at age seventeen.
Beaufort - A merchant and friend of Victor’s father; the father of Caroline Beaufort.
Peasants - A family of peasants, including a blind old man, De Lacey; his son and daughter, Felix and Agatha; and a
foreign woman named Safie. The monster learns how to speak and interact by observing them. When he reveals
himself to them, hoping for friendship, they beat him and chase him away.
M. Waldman - The professor of chemistry who sparks Victor’s interest in science. He dismisses the alchemists’
conclusions as unfounded but sympathizes with Victor’s interest in a science that can explain the “big questions,”
such as the origin of life.
M. Krempe - A professor of natural philosophy at Ingolstadt. He dismisses Victor’s study of the alchemists as
wasted time and encourages him to begin his studies anew.
Mr. Kirwin - The magistrate who accuses Victor of Henry’s murder.
In a series of letters, Robert Walton, the captain of a ship bound for the North Pole, recounts to his sister back in
England the progress of his dangerous mission. Walton encounters Victor Frankenstein, who has been traveling by
dog-drawn sledge across the ice and is weakened by the cold. Walton takes him aboard ship, helps nurse him back
to health, and hears the fantastic tale of the monster that Frankenstein created. Victor first describes his early life in Geneva. At the end of a blissful childhood spent in the company of Elizabeth
Lavenza (his cousin in the 1818 edition, his adopted sister in the 1831 edition) and friend Henry Clerval, Victor enters
the university of Ingolstadt to study natural philosophy and chemistry. There, he is consumed by the desire to
discover the secret of life and, after several years of research, becomes convinced that he has found it.
Armed with the knowledge he has long been seeking, Victor spends months feverishly fashioning a creature out of
old body parts. One climactic night, in the secrecy of his apartment, he brings his creation to life. When he looks at
the monstrosity that he has created, however, the sight horrifies him. After a fitful night of sleep, interrupted by the
specter of the monster looming over him, he runs into the streets, eventually wandering in remorse. Victor runs into
Henry, who has come to study at the university, and he takes his friend back to his apartment. Though the monster is
gone, Victor falls into a feverish illness.
Sickened by his horrific deed, Victor prepares to return to Geneva, to his family, and to health. Just before departing
Ingolstadt, however, he receives a letter from his father informing him that his youngest brother, William, has been
murdered. Grief-stricken, Victor hurries home. While passing through the woods where William was strangled, he
catches sight of the monster and becomes convinced that the monster is his brother’s murderer. Arriving in Geneva,
Victor finds that Justine Moritz, a kind, gentle girl who had been adopted by the Frankenstein household, has been
accused. She is tried, condemned, and executed, despite her assertions of innocence. Victor grows despondent,
guilty with the knowledge that the monster he has created bears responsibility for the death of two innocent loved
Hoping to ease his grief, Victor takes a vacation to the mountains. While he is alone one day, crossing an enormous
glacier, the monster approaches him. The monster admits to the murder of William but begs for understanding.
Lonely, shunned, and forlorn, he says that he struck out at William in a desperate attempt to injure Victor, his cruel
creator. The monster begs Victor to create a mate for him, a monster equally grotesque to serve as his sole
Victor refuses at first, horrified by the prospect of creating a second monster. The monster is eloquent and
persuasive, however, and he eventually convinces Victor. After returning to Geneva, Victor heads for England,
accompanied by Henry, to gather information for the creation of a female monster. Leaving Henry in Scotland, he
secludes himself on a desolate island in the Orkneys and works reluctantly at repeating his first success. One night,
struck by doubts about the morality of his actions, Victor glances out the window to see the monster glaring in at him
with a frightening grin. Horrified by the possible consequences of his work, Victor destroys his new creation. The
monster, enraged, vows revenge, swearing that he will be with Victor on Victor’s wedding night.
Later that night, Victor takes a boat out onto a lake and dumps the remains of the second creature in the water. The
wind picks up and prevents him from returning to the island. In the morning, he finds himself ashore near an unknown
town. Upon landing, he is arrested and informed that he will be tried for a murder discovered the previous night.
Victor denies any knowledge of the murder, but when shown the body, he is shocked to behold his friend Henry
Clerval, with the mark of the monster’s fingers on his neck. Victor falls ill, raving and feverish, and is kept in prison
until his recovery, after which he is acquitted of the crime.
Shortly after returning to Geneva with his father, Victor marries Elizabeth. He fears the monster’s warning and
suspects that he will be murdered on his wedding night. To be cautious, he sends Elizabeth away to wait for him.
While he awaits the monster, he hears Elizabeth scream and realizes that the monster had been hinting at killing his
new bride, not himself. Victor returns home to his father, who dies of grief a short time later. Victor vows to devote the
rest of his life to finding the monster and exacting his revenge, and he soon departs to begin his quest. Victor tracks the monster ever northward into the ice. In a dogsled chase, Victor almost catches up with the monster,
but the sea beneath them swells and the ice breaks, leaving an unbridgeable gap between them. At this point, Walton
encounters Victor, and the narrative catches up to the time of Walton’s fourth letter to his sister.
Walton tells the remainder of the story in another series of letters to his sister. Victor, already ill when the two men
meet, worsens and dies shortly thereafter. When Walton returns, several days later, to the room in which the body
lies, he is startled to see the monster weeping over Victor. The monster tells Walton of his immense solitude,
suffering, hatred, and remorse. He asserts that now that his creator has died, he too can end his suffering. The
monster then departs for the northernmost ice to die.
The Electric Ant
Garson Poole, Danceman, and Sarah
Garson Poole wakes up after a flying-car-crash to find that he has lost a hand. He then finds out that he is
in fact an 'electric ant' - an organic robot. He further finds out that what he believes is his
subjective reality is in fact being fed from a micro-punched tape in his chest cavity. He experiments on this
tape by adding new holes, which adds things to his reality. Convinced that his entire reality is constrained
by the tape, he makes a major change to it, with a major effect on his reality. The change affects everyone
else he interacts with, which raises the question of whether any of them - or he himself - are "real" at all.
The narrator, Juana, Zoe (gift for naming mountains), Berta, Eva, Teresa(the pregnant one), Carlota,
Trip to Antarctica on the ship Yelcho. The narrator builds a colony and they go to Antarctica to
explore the land and see it for themselves. They do not plan on conquering it and for that reason
they do not leave any marks of their trip.
The Marine Excursion of the Knights of Pythias
Story of the Mariposa Belle, a ship that goes on an excursion and almost drowns but then comes
floating back up because the sea it is in is not even deep. The
This short story is about an excursion on the Mariposa Belle in the small town of Mariposa . The
story initially mentions the preparations and the thrill of some people going on this regular excursion
whereas some people just let the opportunity pass the story also mentions the accident meeting the
steamer, and how those who have missed or did not go on the boat felt relief that the salvation must
have been brought by divine Providence . Generally , the story establishes this setting although it is
also a sketch on the people on-board and life in a small town , and how these people who seem
simple when it comes to their everyday lives manage to escape a sinking boat , and let it float back
on the water too
The Second Bakery Attack
A newlywed couple wake up in the middle of the night sharing an unbearable hunger. The wife attempts to procure food; the husband daydreams and arranges beercan
The husband tells his wife about the other time he experienced such a hunger, when he
attacked a bakery with his friend.
Convinced he is cursed, the wife insists they attack another bakery to undo the hex.
Failing to find a bakery at 2.30am, they settle for a McDonalds and take their fill of
The wife sleeps.
In The Penal Colony
The story focuses on the Explorer, who is encountering the brutal machine for the first time. Everything
about the machine and its purpose is told to him by the Officer, while the Soldier and the Condemned
(who is unaware that he has been sentenced to die) placidly watch nearby. The Officer tells of
the religious epiphany the executed experience in their last six hours in the machine.
Eventually it becomes clear that the use of the machine, and its associated process of justice where the
accused is always instantly found guilty and the law he has broken is inscribed on his body before
ultimately killing him, has fallen out of favor with the current Commandant. The Officer is nostalgic
regarding the torture machine and the values that were initially associated with it. As the last proponent of
the machine, he strongly believes in its form of justice and the infallibility of the previous Commandant,
who designed and built the device. In fact, the Officer carries its blueprints with him and is the only person
who can properly decipher them; no one else is allowed to handle these documents.
The Officer begs the Explorer to speak to the current Commandant on behalf of the machine's continued
use. He refuses to do so. He says he will not speak against it publicly, but he will give his opinion to the
Commandant privately, and will leave before he can be called to give an official account. With this, the
Officer frees the Condemned and sets up the machine for himself, with the words "Be Just" to be written
on him. However, the machine malfunctions due to its advanced state of disrepair; instead of its usual
elegant operation, it quickly stabs the Officer to death, denying him the mystical experience of the
prisoners he executed. 
Accompanied by the Soldier and the Condemned, the Explorer makes his way to a tea house in which he
is shown the grave of the old Commandant. Its stone is set so low that a table can easily be placed over
it; the inscription states his followers' belief that he will rise from the dead someday and take control of the
colony once more. As the Explorer prepares to leave by boat, the Soldier and the Condemned try to board
but are repelled by the Explorer himself.
Everything That Rises Must Converge Julian, escorts his mother to the fitness centre because she has refused to take the bus alone since integration. She
adjusts her garish new hat and contemplates returning it to pay the monthly gas bill. While walking through their
dilapidated neighborhood, Julian imagines moving to a house in the country. He declares that he will one day make
money, even though he knows he never really will. His mother encourages him to dream, saying that it will take time
to establish himself.
She continues to chatter, mentioning that her grandfather once owned a plantation with 200 slaves. Embarrassed,
Julian comments that the days of slavery are over, to which she replies that blacks should be free to rise but should
do so separately from whites. Both think about the grandfather’s house again, and Julian grows envious, despite the
fact that he only saw the house in ruins as a boy. As his mother talks about her black nurse, Caroline, Julian resolves
to sit next to a black person on the bus in reparation for his mother’s prejudices.
When they arrive at the bus stop, Julian baits his mother by removing his tie, prompting her to exclaim that he looks
like a thug. Julian retorts that true culture is in the mind and not reflected by how one acts or looks, as his mother
believes. As they bicker, the bus pulls up and they board. Julian’s mother strikes up conversation with other
passengers, eventually pointing out with relief that there are only white people on the bus. Another woman joins in,
and the subject of the discussion turns to Julian. Julian’s mother comments that he works as a typewriter salesman
but wants to be a writer. Julian withdraws into a mental bubble. He judges his mother for her opinions, believing that
she lives in a distorted fantasy world of false graciousness. Although he feels nothing but disdain for her, she has
made sacrifices so that he could have a good education.
The bus stops and a well-dressed African American man boards, sits down, and opens a newspaper. Julian imagines
striking up conversation with him just to make his mother uncomfortable. Instead, he asks for a light, in spite of the
no-smoking signs and the fact that he doesn’t have any cigarettes. He awkwardly returns the matches to the man,
who glares at him. Julian dreams up new ways to teach his mother a lesson, imagining that he will ignore her as she
gets off the bus, which would force her to worry that he may not pick her up after her exercise class.
Julian retreats deeper into his thoughts, daydreaming about bringing a black lawyer or professor home for dinner or
about his mother becoming sick and requiring treatment from a black doctor. Though he would not want to give his
mother a stroke, he fantasizes about bringing a black woman home and forcing his mother to accept her. Despite
these fantasies, he remembers how he has failed to connect with the African Americans with whom he has struck up
conversations in the past.
The bus stops again, and a stern-looking black woman boards with her young son in tow. Julian senses something
familiar about her, but he doesn’t know why. The little boy clambers onto the seat next to Julian’s mother, while the
black woman squeezes into the seat next to Julian. Julian’s mother likes all children regardless of race and smiles at
the little boy. He then realizes with delight that the black woman seems so familiar because she wears the same ugly
hat as his mother, and he hopes the coincidence will teach his mother a lesson. The black woman angrily calls out to
her son, Carver, yanking him to her side. Julian’s mother tries to play peek-a-boo with the little boy, but the black
woman ignores her and chastises her son instead.
Julian and the black woman both pull the signal cord at the same time to get off the bus. Julian realizes with horror
that his mother will try to give Carver a nickel as she does with all little children. While they disembark, his mother
searches through her purse but can find only a penny. Despite Julian’s warnings, his mother calls after Carver and
tells him she has a shiny new penny for him. Carver’s mother explodes with rage, shouting “He don’t take nobody’s
pennies!” She swings her massive purse and knocks Julian’s mother down to the ground, then drags Carver away.
Julian berates his mother as he collects her items and pulls her up. Disoriented, she sways for a moment before
stumbling off. Julian follows and lectures her, saying that she should learn from her encounter with the woman on the bus, who represents all African Americans and their distaste for condescending handouts. Reaching out to grab her
arm, he sees a strange expression on her face. She tells him to call for Grandpa or her nurse, Caroline, to fetch her.
Wresting herself from his grasp, she crumples to the pavement. Julian rushes to her and finds her face distorted, one
eye rolling around and the other fixed on his face before finally closing. Julian starts to run for help but quickly returns
to his mother’s side.
A maid for the Ross family who comes to spend most of her time with Mrs. Ross as the novel progresses.
The main character of the novel, Robert is a Canadian soldier who goes to Europe to fight the German forces during World War I.
Deeply empathetic, Robert has a kinship with all animals. He is haunted by the death of his sister, Rowena, who fell from her
wheelchair when he was supposed to be watching over her. He encou