ENG 1120 Study Guide - Final Guide: Simile, Magic Realism, Black Comedy

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31 Mar 2012
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Final Exam Notes
December-17-11
10:20 AM
1. Definitions -1 mark for the definition 2 marks for illustration, explanation of definition (/30
marks)
2. Identification and significance of quotations (both novels and the stories after the midterm)
(/30 mark)
3. Essay questions-don't be broad or fluffy (!) be specific and compare or contrast texts (6-8
paragraphs)
English Literary Terms
Plot-is the movement of the story which provides tension build up
-centered upon changes/development of characters and conflicts
Obstacles and Conflicts-can range from physical obstructions and challenges to emotion and
-psychological delays confusion and conflict
Climax-movement of great intensity in development of story
-point " which author's meaning is often most clear
Denoument- final resolution of the plot and of the tension caused by the events of the story
- the "untying" conflicts resolved, questions and motivations explained
Round Character-character with psychological depth and complexity
-inner temperament is conveyed/explored through the narration of the story
-their motivation for action and behaviour seems plausible
-*way of creating round character one whose motivations are plausible d we at least partially
understand (through their behaviour, actions, dialogue, thought, beliefs and value systems
{considering the settings})
Flat character-a character who has or is given no inner complexity
Dynamic character- character who changes, grows or develops across the course of the story
-he/she is altered by events of the story
-arrives at an increased self-understanding and awareness altered in perceptions or beliefs by the
event of the story
Static character-character whose outlook on the world/self does not change.
-same perceptions beliefs, temperament at the beginning and end
Motivation-reason or basis for a characters actions
-motivation maybe conveyed through thoughts, behaviour, dialogue or by the narrators
comments or perception of events
-character's behaviour can't appear too inconsistent or erratic or character wont seem plausible
Epiphany-sudden moment of profound, intense insight, self-discovery or revelation that transforms or
alters one's life or understanding of self
-the insight is often linked to or inspired by the divine-eg. A spiritual transformation or revelation
or spiritually guided insight that transforms how we view ourselves or our world.
Unconscious- part of self which is unknown to us and which houses our repressed longings, desires and
fears-whatever is unacceptable to ourselves and our society and so is denied conscious
acknowledgement
Projection-project or displace anxiety or fears or emotions, which cannot be consciously acknowledged
or accepted, on to someone or something else--the other (eg. The blind) who becomes a
repository for or a representative of feelings and weaknesses which one can't accept in oneself.
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-a means by which one's own deepest fears and anxieties express themselves but in a disguised
form
Trauma-experience so physically and/or psychologically wounding that itdamages or destroys a persons'
trust in himself and his/her world
-experienced as an overwhelming threat to self, in which the person perceives him/herself as
entirely
powerless in the face of a hostile environment
-trauma cant be contained or explained within normal experience, it may be difficult to articulate
and
master and to share with others.
Trauma narrative-explores the ways in which narrative enables recovery or healing from trauma.
-narrative circumscribes the trauma, giving it a beginning and end, provides ownership over the
experience, and allows the memory of the trauma to be shared with and recognized by others.
-strives to avoid glibly happy endings
Juxtaposition- to place two objects, images, descriptions or conversations side by side, often for ironic
effect.
Repetition- to repeat a key image or phraseessential for foreshadowing, for character development,
and for irony.
Foreshadow- to hint, through images, description, or dialogue, at future events in the story or at the
story’s final
outcome
Flashback- descriptions or scenes representing events that happened before the point at which the story
opens
Ambiguity- a deliberate uncertainty in the story, making it possible to interpret events and characters in
more than
way, or leaving a final interpretation impossible.
Closure- to provide a conclusion to the story that satisfies readers’ expectations.
Uncanny: an element of the supernatural which stimulates feelings of dread and horror
Stream of consciousness- an attempt to capture the way we experience consciousness, as a continuing,
unmoderated stream of thought, without rational ordering and structure and marked by shifting
feelings.
Interior monologue- the inner dialogue and thoughts of the character, used to convey a stream of
consciousness.
-Usually written in present tense and depicted without the usual indications of dialogue, such as
he said, she
said etc. or punctuation, because the dialogue is unfolding inside the character’s mind.
Symbol: A concrete, literal image or object used to represent or convey abstract ideas and to evoke
intense
emotions. Symbols convey a complex and often emotionally charged range of associations and
meanings.
-In literature, symbols usually take on their value from the context in which they appear; they
have their
basis in the physical and the concretesomething that can be easily pictured and that has a
literal
significance or purposeand they accumulate their emotional, psychological, and moral
associations and
meaning as the story progresses. By the story`s end, the concrete object will call up or contain
within itself
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this range of associations and meanings.
Imagery- mental images and imaginary pictures evoked through description; imagery is powerful
because it makes a
-direct appeal to our senses and emotions.
Imagery-provides verisimilitude to a setting (so that we can picture the setting in our minds)
-helps convey the inner realities and psychological state of the characters, as well as their
physical
appearance.
-contributes to richness and resonance of the symbolism
Metaphor and simile- Both are figures of speech which give readers greater understanding into abstract
or
intangible ideas, into emotions, or into complex psychological states, by likening them to an
concrete image
or object which can be easily visualized and understood. They help to make the intangible more
tangible and
allow us to experience, to feel, and to understand the abstract on a more physical, concrete
level.
Simile- a comparison of two unlike things which share a similar quality
Metaphor- a figure of speech which develops, in a more abstract , detailed, and extended way, the
likeness
between two dissimilar thing.. Metaphors give us insight into an abstract idea or emotion by
likening it to
something (for example an object or animal) which is specific and concrete and can be easily
visualized.
First person-tells the story through his or her subjective perspective, using “I”
-limited specifically to what she is able to observe, determine and interpret about people and
events, as well
as to what she can understand about herself. Thus we have to depend on her limited
explanations of the
characters’ motives and actions, explanations which are influenced by her personality, biases,
and prejudices
as well as her inability to read other people’s minds.
-are they talking in first or third person? What is their view point? The amount of information the
narrator
has? The reliability of the narrator. Whether or not the narrator is meant to be authoritative.
-Some first person narrators will be minor characters- simply watching and describing the main
events of the
story from outside, but more often they will be a central figure within the story.
While first person narrators always provide a limited perspective on events they can often be placed
within a range of reliable or unreliable:
Reliable vs unreliable:
is she giving us an accurate and full accounts of events? Can we trust her interpretation of events? The
analysis of characters and motivation that she represents?
Third person-the narrator stands outside the world of the story, though they can be more or less
intrusive, (im
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