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ENG1131 Grammar Test 1

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David Sacks

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Grammar Quiz 1 The Little Penguin Handbook: Chapters 25, 32, 33 Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma Splices Fragments Fragments are incomplete sentences, often lacking a key element- often a subject or a verb. Basic strategies for turning fragments into sentences Incorporate the fragment into an adjoining sentence game, playing I was hooked on the game. Playing day and night. Add the missing element. investors should think When aiming for the highest returns, and also thinking about the possible losses. Recognizing fragments Does the sentence have a subject? Does the sentence have a complete verb? If the sentence begins with a subordinate clause, is there a main clause in the same sentence? Remember: 1. A sentence must have a subject and complete verb. 2. A subordinate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence. Run-on Sentences A run on sentence jams together two or more sentences, failing to separate them with appropriate punctuation. Fixing run-on sentences 1. Identify the problem 2. Determine where the run-on sentence needs to be divided 3. Determine the relationship between the main clauses  Insert a period  Insert a semicolon  Insert a comma and a coordinating conjunction  Make one of the clauses subordinate Internet businesses are not bound to specific locations or old ways of running|a business they are more flexible in allowing employees to telecommute and to determine the hours they work. ENG1131 Grammar Quiz #1 2 Comma Splices Comma splices occur when two or more sentences are incorrectly joined by a comma: a comma links two clauses that could stand on their own. Fixing comma splices 1. Change the comma to a period 2. Change the comma to a semicolon 3. Insert a coordinating conjunction 4. Make one of the main clauses a subordinate clause. 5. Make one of the main clauses a phrase. Commas Commas With Introductory Elements Introductory elements like conjunctive adverbs and introductory phrases usually need to be set off by commas. Therefore, the subject could not have been at the scene of the crime. Commas With Compound Clauses 1. Use a comma to separate main clauses 2. Do not use a comma to separate two verbs with the same subject 3. Do not use a comma to separate a main clause from a restrictive clause or phrase Commas With Nonrestrictive Modifiers 1. Pay special attention to appositives 2. Use commas to mark off parenthetical expressions A parenthetical expression provides information or commentary that usually is not essential to the sentence’s meaning. Commas with items in a series  In a series of three or more items, place a comma after each item except the last one. Commas with coordinate adjectives  Coordinate adjectives are two or more adjectives that each
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