Grammar Quiz 1
The Little Penguin Handbook: Chapters 25, 32, 33
Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma Splices
Fragments are incomplete sentences, often lacking a key element- often a subject or
Basic strategies for turning fragments into sentences
Incorporate the fragment into an adjoining sentence
I was hooked on the game. Playing day and night.
Add the missing element.
investors should think
When aiming for the highest returns, and also thinking about the possible
Does the sentence have a subject?
Does the sentence have a complete verb?
If the sentence begins with a subordinate clause, is there a main clause in the same
1. A sentence must have a subject and complete verb.
2. A subordinate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence.
A run on sentence jams together two or more sentences, failing to separate them
with appropriate punctuation.
Fixing run-on sentences
1. Identify the problem
2. Determine where the run-on sentence needs to be divided
3. Determine the relationship between the main clauses
Insert a period
Insert a semicolon
Insert a comma and a coordinating conjunction
Make one of the clauses subordinate
Internet businesses are not bound to specific locations or old ways of running|a business
they are more flexible in allowing employees to telecommute and to determine the hours
they work. ENG1131 Grammar Quiz #1 2
Comma splices occur when two or more sentences are incorrectly joined by a
comma: a comma links two clauses that could stand on their own.
Fixing comma splices
1. Change the comma to a period
2. Change the comma to a semicolon
3. Insert a coordinating conjunction
4. Make one of the main clauses a subordinate clause.
5. Make one of the main clauses a phrase.
Commas With Introductory Elements
Introductory elements like conjunctive adverbs and introductory phrases usually
need to be set off by commas.
Therefore, the subject could not have been at the scene of the crime.
Commas With Compound Clauses
1. Use a comma to separate main clauses
2. Do not use a comma to separate two verbs with the same subject
3. Do not use a comma to separate a main clause from a restrictive clause or phrase
Commas With Nonrestrictive Modifiers
1. Pay special attention to appositives
2. Use commas to mark off parenthetical expressions
A parenthetical expression provides information or commentary that
usually is not essential to the sentence’s meaning.
Commas with items in a series
In a series of three or more items, place a comma after each item except the
Commas with coordinate adjectives
Coordinate adjectives are two or more adjectives that each