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ENG1131 Exam Review.docx

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Elena Ilina

ENG1131 Exam Review Part 1: Grammar Parts of speech • Nouns: person, place, thing, or concept • Pronouns: replaces a noun • Verbs: action or being • Adverbs: modify or qualify a verb • Conjunctions: join words and phrases • Adjectives: modify or describe a noun or pronoun • Interjections: a word used to express surprise or emotion • Prepositions: placed before a noun or pronoun (placement) Parts of sentences • Subjects: who or what the sentence is about • Predicates: renames or describes a noun • Objects: what the subject is doing to (direct) if it has her or she etc. before direct that he, she etc. is indirect • Complements: describes objects • Modifiers: modifies like adjectives and adverbs etc. Sentence types • Simple: independent clause with no subordinate clauses • Compound: two or more independent clauses • Complex: one independent clause with one or more subordinate clauses • Compound-complex: at least 2 independent clauses with at least one subordinate clause Sentence structure • Phrases: lack a subject and a verb • Clauses: have a subject and a verb yet usually start with (although etc.) if subordinate • Sentences: contains all parts of a sentence Sentence Style • Fragment: group of words trying to be a sentence • Run on sentences: two or more independent clauses forming one sentence without being joining with commas, semicolons etc. • Comma splice: using a comma without coordinating conjunctions • Dangling modifiers: when the noun or pronoun is missing. (tired of being told off…) Mood • Indicative: facts opinions and questions • Imperative: orders or advice • Subjunctive: wishes requests or conditions contrary to fact (all v
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