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Final

Final review + book notes(you can ignore these Chinese translations).docx


Department
Environmental Studies
Course Code
ENV 1101
Professor
Sonia Wesche
Study Guide
Final

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Human need for nature
– physical
ecosystem services other physical benefits outdoor recreation “green exercise”
– social/relational
• Human to human relations – children – adults • Human to nature contact
– intangible 无无无
• genetic - biophilia
• developmental
• educational
• spiritual
Biophilia: the concept that human beings subconsciously 潜潜潜潜 seek a connection
with the rest of life
• innate need to connect with other life forms and the living world around us
• essential to
– our development
– our well-being
• loss of contact … consequences
– children
• contact with nature … regular play in a natural environment helps children
– reach their full potential
– develop
motor skills awareness, observation creativity, imagination, sense of wonder
• social and communication skills • independence, individual identity
Nature Deficit Disorder
• Last Child in the Woods: Richard Louv (2008)
Children’s lives have moved indoors Car transport (almost
everywhere) – Experience nature through windows and on screen
• Coined term “Nature Deficit Disorder”
A lack of routine contact with nature may result in stunted academic and developmental growth. This unwanted side-
effect of the electronic age is called Nature Deficit Disorder (NDD). The term was coined by author
Richard Louv in his book Last Child in the Woods in order to explain how our societal
disconnect with nature is affecting today's children.
Chap 14. Atmospheric 潜潜潜潜 Science and Air Pollution
-Hillary and Norgay are first people climbing to summit and return: 1953.
-First female to summit: Tabei 1975
-First climb without oxygen: Habeler and Messner 1978
-most summits: 21, Ang Rita Sherpa.

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-most important legacy of the Superstack is that it ushered in an ear of ecological
awareness, recovery, and restoration in Ontario, and of pride in the natural
environment in Sudbury area.
The atmosphere and Weather
- atmosphere provide O2, absorbs hazardous solar radiation, burns up incoming
meteors, transports and recycles water and nutrients and moderates climate.
- human activities alter some atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane
(CH4), and ozone(O3)
-Composition of atmosphere: 78.08% Nitrogen, 20.95% Oxygen, other permanent
gases and variable gases.
The atmosphere is layered
-There are four layer.
-Bottommost layer: Troposphere
无无无
. Provides us with the air we need to live. The
movement of air within the troposphere is also largely responsible for the planet's
weather. It is thin (average 11 km high). Contains three-quarters of the atmosphere's
mass because air is denser 无无 near Earth's surface. Troposphere air temperature
declines 6'C for each kilo in altitude. At the top of the troposphere, the boundary
called the tropopause(-52'C). all land on earth within troposphere.
-temperature gets colder the higher you go. lots of the mixing of the air. means
that airborne pollution can make its way up to the tropopause fairly quickly.
-The stratosphere 无无无
extends from 11km to 50km above sea level. 1000 times as dry
and less dense than troposphere. Ozone concentrates in a portion of the
stratosphere from 17km to 30km above sea level, called Ozone layer.
- Air is thin, does not move around much. contains ozone which absorbs some
radiation, causing the stratosphere to warm. Block UV rays.
-human modification of the stratosphere:
-Why is ozone layer important: the ozone layer screens out incoming solar
radiation in the ultra-violet range (10-400nm). A little UV is good for you,
stimulates vitamin D production, but too much UV damages the DNA and
proteins contained in living tissues. If all UV radiation reached the Earth's
surface, few organisms would survive. >99% of UV radiation fails to penetrate
the stratosphere.
-Stratospheric processes: when oxygen molecules (O2) encounter UV
radiation, they tend to split apart into two O atoms. some free O atoms tend to
quickly recombine with other O2 molecules to form ozone. when an ozone
molecule encounters UV radiation, it splits into O2 and O. In other words,
dynamic interactions between oxygen and UV radiation are continually
occurring in the stratosphere. This process consumes most of the UV
radiation that enters the stratosphere. Concentrations 潜潜 of ozone are highest
at equator, where incoming radiation is highest. In Canada: lowest during
winter, highest in summer.
-CFCs is incented in 20th century, these are non-natural combinations of
carbon, fluorine and chlorine(CI). These chemicals had numerous useful
applications: air conditioning, refrigeration, plastic foam, cleaning

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computer parts.
-in 1970s it was discovered that when CFCs make their way into the
stratosphere, they react with UV radiation, the UV causes the CFC atom to
release chlorine, which in turn attacks ozone.
-chlorine ordinarily does not leave the troposphere, CFCs transport it to
the stratosphere; because CI lasts for decades in the stratosphere, a single CL
atom can break down 100,000 ozone molecules. In 1985, a hole in the ozone
layer was observed over the southern hemisphere.
-poles have thinner ozone layer.
-Ozone depletion is a non-linear phenomenon. Scientists assume that
ozone depletion would be a gradual process and occur uniformly across
the stratosphere. Recall: 潜潜 潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜潜
-mesosphere
无无无
tends from 50km to 80km above sea level. Lie above stratosphere.
Air pressure extremely low.
-thermosphere 无无无无
, top layer, extends upward to 500km.
-Energy passing through the atmosphere drives ecological systems. The
amount of energy arriving at the earth from solar radiation is balanced by a
similar amount of radiation leaving the earth's atmosphere. Called exchange of
energy.
-incoming solar energy: absorbed by oceans and land; absorbed by clouds
and atmosphere;
-Atmospheric properties include temperature, pressure, and humidity.
(atmospheric pressure, relative humidity)
1. atmospheric pressure: -measures the weight per unit area produced by a
column of air. -decrease with altitude.
2. relative humidity: - amount of water vapour a given volume of air holds
relative to the maximum amount it could contain for a given temperature.
3. temperature: varies with location and time. -temperature differences affect
air circulation.
-the temperature of air also varies with location and time because the sun's rays
strike some area more directly than others. Temperature also varies because of
topography, plant cover, proximity of land to water. (microclimate)
-solar energy heats the atmosphere, helps create seasons, and causes air
circulate.
-about 70% of the solar energy is absorbed by the atmosphere and planetary
surface, while the rest is reflected back into space.
-sunlight directly overhead, air absorbs less energy due to shorter path through
atmosphere
-the atmosphere drives weather and climate
-Weather specifies atmospheric conditions over short time periods,
typically hours or days, and within relatively small geographic areas./
the state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place- temperature,
wind, cloudiness, air pressure, etc. shorter time periods , highly
variable.
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