environmental science notes 1.docx

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Environmental Science
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Chapter 1 part 1Mars was believed to have water on its surface due to the discovery of solid CO2 and H2O found on the polar caps Dendritic drainage patterns on mars suggests that there was once water on its surfacePlanet EarthMass598 x 1024 kg 598 million billion billion kg Circumference 40 041 km Diameter 12 742 km Age 46 billion years oldOldest rock 455 billion years old northern Quebec Fossilized life forms reported in 3435 billion year old rocks Filament structures resembling microfossilized life Schopf 1993 Science Humans appeared 3544 million years agoModern humans 200000 yearsEarths CoreRich in iron and nickelMantle has a variable compositionIron Magnesium Aluminum Silicon and Oxygen 2800 km thickAsthenosphereUppermost part of mantleTemp and pressure make the rock flexibleLithosphere Crust and uppermost mantleRigid outermost shell of the Earth CrustRocky outer skin composed of O 45 Si 27 Al 8 Fe 7 Ca Mg Na etcContinental crust 45 km thick primarily composed of graniteOceanic crust thinner 8 km primarily composed of basaltOceanic crust denser than continental crust Earths surface is constantly changed and reworked via a range of processes operating over vastly different scales of space and timePlate tectonics volcanoes earthquakes etcRock cycle igneous metamorphic and sedimentaryGlaciations climatic changesElement cycling eg carbon nitrogen sulfur etcErosion and weatheringEarths internal heat from the mantle causes tectonic plate movementsEarths surface consists of about 15 main tectonic plates Move at 215 cm per year Dierent types of plate boundaries cause Formation of new crust EarthquakesVolcanism and mountain buildingThree primary types of rock make up rock cycle1 Igneous Formed from cooling of molten rock2 Sedimentary Formed by precipitation andor cementation of particlesCompressed to form new rock3 Metamorphic Heat and pressure transform igneous or sedimentary rocksSources of pollutants Point sourcesdischarge of chemicals oil spills snow pumps Nonpoint sourcesmore difficult to measure due to the length in measurable size gas emissions fertilizer runoffs Sinksprocesses that remove a substance from a certain reservoir precipitation the ocean is thebiggest sink it absorbs greenhouse gases and brings it to the bottom of the sea floorIsotopesAtoms of an element possessing a variable number of neutronsEg 2H deuterium 3H tritiumanoxic conditions absence of O2oxic conditions presence of O2Chapter 1 part 2 Capable of being regenerated after harvesting they could be used foreverEx animals plants soils water solar energyA renewable source of energy can be degraded in the long term or contaminated or overutilized ex Easter IslandResource management Crops animal stocks forests can be harvested sustainability with proper practicesNeed to maintain a healthy environmentNeed to maintain a good genetic diversityNeed to avoid overexploitationHuman factors can influence the size and productivity of natural resourceMining and Mineral processingNonrenewable resources Metals salts rocks granite marble etcOre extraction technique can improve our recovery and extend the resourcesEssential for the economy of Canada and the world
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