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Environmental Studies
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Oct 10Human Need for NatureHuman need for naturephysicalEcosystem serviceOther physical benefitsOutdoor recreationGreen exercise Green gymHuman need for natureSocial relationalHH relations Human and Health relationsHN contact Human and Nature contactHuman need for natureintangibleGeneticBiophiliaDevelopmentalEducationalSpiritualBiophiliaThe connections that human subconsciously seek with the rest of lifeInnate need to connect with other life forms and the living world around usEssential toour developmentour wellbeingLoss of contactconsequencesNeed for naturechildrenContact with natureregular play in a natural environment helps childrenReach their full potentialDevelop motor skills awareness observation creativity imagination sense of wonder social and communication skills independence individual identityNature Deficit DisorderLast child in the woods Richard Louv 2008Childrens lives have moved indoorsCar transport almost everywhere Experience nature through windows and on screenCoined term Nature Deflict DisorderthOct 2224 Air Pollution and Global Climate ChangeMount EverestConditions at summitWind blows 250kmh much of the year due to jet streamOnly 13 the concentration of oxygen per unit air compared to sea levelTemperature is usually well below freezing can go to 75CTroposphereWhere we live and everything else on EarthPrecipitation cycle occurs hereTemperature gets colder the higher you go dry air cools at C100m moist air typically at a slower rateLots of mixing of the airMeans that airborne pollution can make its way up to tropopause fairly quicklyStratosphere1550km above the surfaceAir is thin does not move around muchContains ozone O3 which absorbs some radiation causing the stratosphere to warmHigher up are the mesosphere thermospheretransition to outer spaceEnergy BalanceEnergy passing through the atmosphere drives ecological systemsThe amount of energy arriving at the Earth from solar radiation is balanced by a similar amount of radiation leaving the Earths atmosphereHuman Modification of the StratosphereGlobal environmental challenge protecting the ozone layerWhy is the ozone layer importantThe ozone layer screens out incoming solar radiation in the ultraviolet range 10400nmA nanometeronebillionth of a metreUltraViolet RadiationA little UV is good for you stimulates vitamin D productionToo much UV damages the DNA and proteins contained in living tissuesIf all UV radiation reached the Earths surface few organisms would survive99 of UV radiation fails to penetrate the stratosphereStratospheric ProcessesWhen oxygen molecules o2 encounter UV radiation they tend to split apart into two O atomsSome free O atoms tend to quickly recombine with other O2 molecules to form ozone o3Ozone molecules may also combine with free oxygen atoms creating two new O2 moleculesWhen an ozone molecule encounters UV radiation it splits into O2 and ODynamic interactions between oxygen and UV radiation are continually occurring in the stratosphereO2UVBOOOO2O3OO3O2 O2O3UVBOO2Stratospheric OzoneContinually forming and being destroyedThis dynamic process consumes most of the UV radiation that enters the stratosphereConcentrations of ozone are highest at equator where incoming radiation is highestConcentrations vary seasonally as well over Canada concentration is lowest during winter highest during summerHuman interference with stratospheric ozonethIn 20 century chemists invented chlorofluorocarbons CFCsThese are nonnatural combinations of Carbon Fluorine and ChlorineThese chemicals had numerous useful applicationsRefrigeration air conditioning plastic foam aerosol cans cleaning computer partsIn 1970s it was discovered that when CFCs make their way into the stratosphere they react with UV radiationThe UV causes the CFC atom to release chlorine which in turn attacks
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