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GEG2320 - Fianl Study Notes.docx

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University of Ottawa

GEG2320FINAL STUDY NOTESREADINGSChapter 1Systems Science and StudyScale or level of geographic detail is an essential property of any GIS projectGeographic problems can be distinguished on the basis of intent or purposeNormative use of GIS GIS that focuses on designPositive use of GIS uses that advance scienceoEx new location for retailersnormative focus on design but to predict how consumers will respond to new locations must analyze and model the actual patterns of behaviour they exhibitpositiveGeographic problems can be distinguished by their time scaleSpatial any space not only the space of the Earths surfaceGeospatial a subset of spatial applied specifically to the Earths surface and near surfaceInformation systems help us to manage what we know organize store access retrieve manipulate synthesize apply etcData consist of numbers text or symbols that are in some sense neutral and almost contextfreeCodifiable knowledge it can be written down and transferred with relative ease to othersTacit implicit understood knowledgeKnowledge about how the world works is more valuable than knowledge about how it looks because it can be used to predictIdeographic geography focuses on the description of form and emphasizes the unique characteristics of placesNomotheic geography seeks to discover general processesMany geographic problems involve multiple goals and objectivesMULTICRITERIA DECISION MAKINGGIS relies heavily on the internet and the limitedaccess intranets of corporations agencies and militaryChapter 2A Gallery of ApplicationsGIS is fundamentally about solving realworld problems5 Ms of GISoMappingoMeasurementoMonitoringoModeling oManagementChapter 3Representing GeographyRepresentations help us assemble far more knowledge about the Earth than is possible on our ownToblers First law of Geography Everything is related to everything else but near things are more related than distant thingsData in digital form are easy to transform process and analyzeoGIS allows us to measure accurately and quickly to overlay and combine and to change scale zoom and pan with respect to map sheet boundariesGeographic representations is concerned with the Earths surface or near surface at scales from the architectural to the globalThe key GIs representation issues are what to represent and how to represent itOne of the most important criteria for the usefulness of a representation is its accuracyMany plans for the real world can be tested first on models or representationsGeographic data link place time and attributesGeographic attributes are classified as nominal ordinal interval ratio and cyclicoNominalserves on to identify or distinguish one entity from another Ex numbers on drivers licenseoOrdinalvalues have a natural order Ex Canada rates its agricultural land by classes of soil quality class 1best class 2not so good etcoIntervalif the difference between the values makes senseEx the Celsius scale is interval because it makes sense to say that 30 and 20 are as different as 20 and 10oRatioif the ratios between values makes senseEx weight is a ratio because it makes sense to say that a person of 100kg is twice as heavy as a person of 50kgoCyclicexamples flow of direction on a map or compass direction or longitude or month of the yearThe world is infinitely complex but computer systems are finite Representations must somehow limit the amount of detail capturedThe 2 fundamental ways of representing geography are discrete objects and continuous fieldsoDiscrete objects view represents the geographic world as objects with welldefined boundaries in otherwise empty space can count theseoContinuous field view represents the real world as a finite number of variables each one defined at every possible positionRaster and vector are two methods of representing geographic data in digital computersoRaster representationsdivide the world into arrays of cells and assign attributes to the cellsoVector representationsall lines are connected by precisely straight lines10 rules of generalizationoSimplificationoSmoothing
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