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Plausible answers to lecture questions

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Department
Geology
Course
GEO1111
Professor
Simone Dumas
Semester
Winter

Description
Plausible answers to lecture questions? Lecture 2 – Planets 1. Other than Earth, what are 2 places in the solar system where we can find active volcanoes? a) Io and Neptune b) Jupiter and Neptune c) Neptune and Mars d) Triton and Io e) Io and Mars 2. Venus is known as Earths twin, but there are several major differences between them. What makes Venus different? a) The diameter, the atmosphere, the clockwise axial rotation, has 2 satellites b) The atmosphere, the counter clockwise axial rotation, has no plate tectonics, has no satellites c) The atmosphere, the clockwise axial rotation, has no plate tectonics, has no satellites d) The diameter, the clockwise axial rotation, has no plate tectonics, has no satellites e) The atmosphere, the clockwise axial rotation, has plate tectonics, has no satellites 3. Which two planets do not follow typical planetary rotation? a) Jupiter and Uranus b) Uranus and Mars c) Mars and Neptune d) Uranus and Venus e) Mars and Io 4. What is the distance, in astronomical units, from the Sun to the 3rd planet? a) 2 b) 3 c) 8 d) 12 e) none of the above 5. Cryovolcanism is__________ and it occurs on __________ a) Lunar volcanism and Mars b) Ice volcanism and Io c) Ice volcanism and Triton d) Ancient volcanism and Io e) Ancient volcanism and Moon 6. Planets are formed by the accretion of what? a) dust and stars b) planetisimals and dust c) photons and dust d) dust and wind e) none of the above 7. The Moon is composed of: a) Cheese b) the same material we find on Earth c) the same material we find as stony meteors d) NH3, H, He e) none of the above 1. Name 4 characteristics unique to the Jovian planets that separates them from the rocky planets. The Jovian planets are unique in that they have an average density of 1.5 times that of water, while the terrestrial planets have a higher density of 5 times water. Another distinguishing characteristic is that they are further from the sun and therefore have a lower temperature. Moreover, the Jovian planets have longer orbital periods and more satellites. Finally, the Jovian planets are much larger than the terrestrial planets. 2. The Moon is the Earths only satellite, where did it come from and what evidence do we have? The Moon formed as the result of a collision between a Mars-sized body and a youthful, semi-molten Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. Some of the ejected debris was thrown into Earth’s orbit and gradually coalesced to form the Moon. The evidence we have of this is that the moon is composed of the same minerals and rocks as Earth. 3. Why are the gas planets found further from the sun than the rocky ones? The gas planets are found further from the sun than the rocky ones because they are less dense. As the universe formed, all the material that had a lighter density moved to the edge of the universe and the heavier material went to the center. 4. The largest volcano in the solar system is located on what planet and which planet is it from the sun? The largest volcano in the solar system is located on Mars, which is the forth planet from the sun. 5. There are 4 main ways to cause melting (volcanic activity) on a planet (or satellite). Increasing temperature is one way, name the other 3. Three ways to cause melting other than increasing temperature are collision of tectonic plates, radioactive decay, and the force of the orbital can cause a planet to grow/shrink (tidal energy) to cause melting. Lecture 3– The Structure of the Earth 1) What is the basis for dividing the Earth into a) the crust, mantle, and core, and b) the lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, and core? 2) How did Andrija Mohorovičid discover the boundary between the crust and the mantle (aka the Mohorovičid Discontinuity or the Moho)? 3) What process causes the P-wave shadow zone? 4) Give one reason why temperature increases with depth within the Earth. 5) Why is the oldest continental crust (4000 Ma) so much older than the oldest oceanic crust (180 Ma)? 6) What is the difference between Primary waves (P-waves) and Secondary waves (S-waves)? a) S-waves propagate through all mediums and are faster than P-waves, whereas P waves only propagate through solids and are slower than S-waves. b) P-waves propagate through all mediums and are faster than S-waves, whereas S-waves only propagate through solids and are slower the P-waves c) S-waves only propagate through liquids and are faster than P-waves, whereas P-waves propagate through all mediums but are slower than S-waves d) P-waves only propagate through solids and are faster than S-waves, whereas S-waves propagate through all mediums but are slower than P-waves. e) S-waves only propagate through solids and are faster than P-waves, whereas P-waves propagate through all mediums but are slower than S-waves. 7) Why does density increase with depth in the crust? a) Because pressure increases with depth. b) Because pressure decreases with depth. c) Because temperature increases with depth. d) Because temperature decreases with depth. e) None of the above. 8) What is the main observable factor that has allowed scientists to determine the internal structure of the Earth? a) Volcanic eruptions b) Deep sea drilling c) Earthquake and seismic waves d) Uplift and erosion e) Meteorites that have landed on Earth 9) What does the S-wave shadow zone tell us about the internal structure of the Earth? a) that there are no liquid layers within the Earth. b) that the upper mantle is liquid. c) that the lower mantle is liquid. d) that the outer core is liquid. e) that the inner core is liquid. 10) How does the geothermal gradient vary with depth within the Earth? a) steep increase in the crust, and gradual in the mantle and core. b) steep increase in the crust and mantle, gradual increase in the core. c) steep increase from crust to mantle. d) gradual increase in the crust, and steep increase in the mantle and core. e) gradual increase in the crust and mantle, as well as gradual increase in the core. Lecture 4A– Earth Materials I 1) In a porphyritic rock, the minerals are both large and small; Why? What type of cookie would you compare this rock-type to? 2) Based on Bowen’s reaction series, what minerals would you expect to form the phenocrysts of a mafic, porphyritic rock? Why? 3) What is a mineral? Give an example of a common everyday compound upon which a change in the state of it creates a mineral. 4) Both graphite and diamond are both relatively pure carbon minerals, yet one is very strong and the other is very weak. What is the main cause of this physical difference? 5) What main physiochemical factors control the formation of minerals and ultimately rocks? 6) How can molten rock form? a) increase temperature b) rapidly decrease pressure c) addition of a flux (H2O, CO2) which lowers a rock’s melting temperature d) frictional heating along tectonic plate boundaries e) all of the above 7) The fine grain texture of the igneous rock basalt suggests: a) rock was slowly cooled b) rock was first cooled slowly, then quickly cooled c) rock was cooled quickly first, then re-heated d) rock was quickly cooled e) none of the above 8) The Earth’s continental lithosphere consists of: a) felsic rocks rich in Si, Al, O, K, Na, Ca b) felsic rocks depleted in Si, Al, O, K, Na, Ca c) mafic rocks rich in Mg, Fe, Si, O d) mafic rocks depleted in Mg, Fe, Si, O e) warm chocolate chip cookies 9) The abundance of silica in granite suggests: a) rock was slowly cooled b) rock was first cooled slowly, then quickly cooled c) rock was cooled quickly first, then re-heated d) rock was quickly cooled e) none of the above 10) A high volatile content in the magma or lava will give us what kind of texture a) Andesitic, Glassy b) Aphanetic, Pumice c) Chunky, Baslatic d) Glassy, Pegmatitic e) Pumice, Pegmatitic Lecture 5– Earth Materials II 1) Define sediment. 2) What is the difference in weathering rate between the Caribbean and Nunavut? Why? What types of weathering processes would you expect to dominate in each? 3) Why are the chief constituents of clastic rocks at the bottom of Bowen’s reaction series? 4) What are the factors that control CaCO3 precipitation? 5) What are the three questions you can ask when studying metamorphic rocks? 6) What is the order of processes that leads to sedimentary rock? a) weathering, erosion, deposition, transport, melting b) weathering, erosion, transport, deposition, lithification c) lithification, erosion, weathering, deposition d) melting, weathering, erosion, lithification e) melting, deposition, lithification, erosion 7) What would be considered a poorly sorted rock? a) Conglomerate b) Basalt c) Sandstone d) Limestone e) all of the above 8) What kind of mineral would you expect to find in an arenite? a) Feldspar b) Mica c) Quartz d) Pyroxene e) Olivine 9) What are the two kinds of regional metamorphism? a) Burial and contact b) Contact and metasomatism c) Dynamothermal and metasomatism d) Burial a
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