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GRT2111 Final Exam Review

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Department
Gerontology
Course
GRT2111
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
GRT2111FinalExamReviewSensationandPerceptionDefinitions Arcus senilis grayringthatformsaroundtheedgeofthecorneaCausedbyfatlipiddepositsdeepintheedgeofthecorneaItdoesntaffectvisionorrequiretreatmentFloater shadows caused by loose cells which float in the virtuous humor Critical flicker fusion the rate at which consecutive visual stimuli can be perceived as separate Useful field of view UFOV the visual are in which information can be acquired within one eye fixation This is useful in predicting crash risk for drivers and begins to reduce at age 20 or younger Saccades fast movement of an eye from one position to another Older readers make longer saccades and skip target words more frequently Fixations maintaining the visual gaze on a single location as one ages they have longer fixations and make more fixations Regressions looking back to material already readBecause of longer fixations and saccades results in more regression to the target words At what age does a decline in acuity begin Need for stronger stimuliGradual reduction in acuity behins in 40s and 50s but does not appreciably limit behavior until 70s or 80sStronger stimuli are needed to activate sensory receptors Be able to name and explain 3 reasons why measuring sensory acuity in older adults cannot predict behavior Variability cross individualsVariability across sensory modalities in a given individual Some sensory systems are more important to others You should know the anatomy presented on slides 57ThestructureoftheeyeSclerawhiteoftheeyeCorneasurfaceoftheeyeballavascularAnteriorchamberspacebetweencorneaandlensitisfilledwithaqueoushumorIrischangespupilsizeLenschangesshapetofocuslightraysonretinaVirtuoushumormaintainsshapeofeyeballRetinacontainsrodsandconeswhicharenervepathwaysConesfordayandcolorvisioneyehasabout6millionRodsfornightvisioneyecontains125millionTheopticnerveleavestheeyeviatheopticdiskBe able to name 3 agerelated changes in the visual system and recognize the restCorneabecomesthickerandlesscurvedArcussenilisgrayringthatformsaroundtheedgeofthecorneaCausedbyfatlipiddepositsdeepintheedgeofthecorneaItdoesntaffectvisionorrequiretreatmentAnteriorchambersgetssmallerAqueoushumormaydraincausingincreasedintraocularpressureandpossiblyglaucomaIriscolorfadesandpupildiameterdecreasesThelensContinuestogrowBecomeslesselasticdenserandyellowerThiscauseschangesincolorvisionLikelihoodofprebyopiafarsightednessincreasesVirtuoushumorbecomesmoreliquidLoosecellsmaycauseshadowsfloatersRetinaVesselsandcapillariesnarrowLossandchangeinchemicalsensitivityofrodsandconesCataractslensbecomescloudyordevelopsopaqueareasthatblocklightfrompassingthroughopacitiesUsuallyassociatedwithblurredvisionAround50ofamericans80havecataractsorhavehadcataractsurgeryGlaucomasecondleadingcauseofblindnessUsuallycausedbyinadequatedrainageofaqueoushumorleadingtodamageoftheopticnerveMaculardegenerationtissueinthemaculapartofretinaresponsibleforcenterofvisualfielddeterioratescausingablindspottoforminthecenterofvisionOneofthemostfrequentcausesofvisionlossinpeopleaged60usuallyirreversiblebutextentofvisionlossmaybereducedifcaughtearlyYou should be able to explain the implications of these changes slides 1213DecreasesvisualacuityduetoChangesinrefractionbycorneaandlensDecreasedaccommodationabilityLesslightadmittedduetosmallerpupilsReducednumberofrodsandconesDecreasedlightdarkadaptionHighervisualthresholdminimumlightrequiredtostimulatereceptorsIncreasedsensitivitytoglareIncreasedcriticalflickerfusionrateatwhichconsecutivevisualstimulicanbeperceivedasseparate
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