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Lecture 24 - April 6.doc

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University of Ottawa

Rise of Regional DiscontentAMtis and Natives Acquiring Ruperts Land 1868from the Hudson Bay Company and brings Canadians to the west There are people who are there in western Canada in Manitobathe Metisa mix of French and aboriginal background Council of Assiniboia 1835Metis governing structure and an economic system that revolved around the buffalo hunt which they organized in a military fashion William McDougallProvincial governor sent out by the government He is turned back and chased out of the area by the Metis Surveyors who came in advance started setting up township lots that did not take into account Metis claims for the area particularly in the area of the Red RiverWinnipegLouis RielLed the Metis when he was 25 His father was an early rebel and he was schooled in Montreal and he would be the one to rally the metis against the incursion of the Canadian government Canadian forces had their supporters in the area with a large group that migrated from OntarioCanadian Party who sought to replicate the anglo protestant nature and individual farming and society that they left in OntarioDr John SchultzLeader of the Canadian Partya merchant doctor and his general store becomes headquarters for the party that opposes Riel and the Metis Riel sets up a provisional government in Fort Gary and he attacks and takes over the store run by Schultz who escapesThomas Scott28 year old Orangeman antiCatholic refuses to abide by the rules of his captors Scott was a difficult prisoner to deal with that the metis condemned him to death This is important because Ontario will NEVER forgive Riel for what happens to Scott Ontario at the time had an extremely powerful Orange order Riel did not want to do it but his more militant followers said it was essential in showing the Metis meant business John A Macdonald follows a two way approach of dealing with this1 Negotiation and to do this he asks Donald Smith 2 Orders troops to head west that will take a long time to get thereBy the time they get there Riel had left for the united states Macdonald wanted that to happen he did not want a show trialDemands to be met from negotiationsa bilingual legislature schools were state supportedpublic and catholic French and English The metis will have not only their land but are also granted for their children anothermillion acres This will come into effect with the mantioba actDonald Smithruns the HBC company knew the area the people asked to negotiate with the Metis 1870 Manitoba Act District of Assinaboiatakes the red river colonyWinnipeg and the surrounding district of Assinaboia to create the initially postage stamp province of Manitoba The problem was the Bureaucracy in distributing the land was horrid Many metis simply gave up some said when they sold their land they were swindled yet on the other hand there are historians who suggest the given amount of land available in the west and the number of people who wanted that land the metis probably got fair market pricevery low Out of this the Metis felt themselves ill treated with many of them deciding to move further west into Saskatchewan1872 Dominion Lands Act 160 acres for 10 and minimal settlement requirements over three yearsmust do certain things you had to build some type of dwelling and cultivate approximately 20 of the land to prevent people getting vast amounts of land1873NorthWest Mounted Policeverified if people were settling will become the Royal Canadian Mounted Police 18711877Seven treaties between the federal government and the Cree Chippewa Ojibwa and Blackfoot placing natives on reservesgoverned under the 1867 Indian Act1876 Indian ActThere was individual family farming with certain native customs being outlawed A pass system would be put into place that you had to obtain a pass to get off the reserve in order to prevent bands of tribes from coming together Natives who were inclined to thengage in individual family farming who were ambitious and wanted loans to buy farm machinery were prevented from doing so They were treated as wards of the state and children Banks were informed not to loan to first nations even well into the 20 century because they were considered too unreliable to pay The emphasis on the reserves to obtain some social assistance was on assimilation To accomplish this among children you have the creation of residential boarding schools Children would be removed from parents especially if the parents were deemed to be unfit Boys would do general maintenance at the schools the buildings were often in horrible shape School uniforms were worn to make them dress like whites They were taught their beliefs were heathen and were not allowed to speak native dialects Phyiscal abuse was also common sexual abuse as well These schools remained in effect until the 1960s Residential schools Film ClipBasil Johnson author of Indian School Daystime in the residential schools basil Johnson who was assigned a number and felt as if he was not a person the emphasis on being he was a sinner in his background and culture and the entire goal of the schools was to make him act and think as much as possible according to a white Christian society B Completing the Initial Union British Columbia 1871 and Prince Edward Island 1873 1866Unification of Vancouver Island and New CaledoniaJohn A Macdonald thought it was necessary to put these two together especially with Alaska purchasing Alaska Britain is fearful of losing BC 1867US purchases Alaska from Russia Esquimalt naval base Governor Anthony Musgravepushes BC to consider union with Canada it is an economic descision There has been little contact with BC and the rest of Canada it is being forced to revaluate After the government purchases ruperts land BC begins to negotiate its terms of entry it is going to be bought It is not nationalism Its promised a transcontinental railway to link to the rest of the country within ten years a promise for its debt to be paid off and an annual subsidyBritain pushes the union of debtridden British Columbia with CanadaBC joins Canada in 1871 largely for perks eg transcontinental railway within 10 yearswhen things do not go well it threatens to leave It is a business deal with self interest There is a recession that hits in the 70sAlexander Mackenzie bribes BC to stayMackenzie needs to slow construction of the railway There is talks of leaving confederation and receive a 750 000 dollar bribe in order to allow an extra 10 years to build a railway Prince Edward Islandforced into Confederation largely by railway debtdid not want to join in 1867 they begin construction in PEI of a railway to increase their self sufficiency but it practically bankrupts PEI Money was not coming from Britain so they went to the Canadian government C The Canadian Pacific Railway 18721885 and the National Policy 1878Macdonalds railway is supposed to unite the country how ever there is great scandal Sir Hugh Allan and the 1872 Pacific Scandalfinancier promoter shipping magnet a connected guy with deep pockets Allen had funnelled money into the conservative partylots of money it looked like he bought the charter Millions of acres of free land with millions of dollars in grants and low interest loans creates what is known as the Pacific Scandal He is forced to give up the charterMacdonald decides in 1873 he will resign instead of being kicked out of officeAlexander Mackenzie 18731878 Secret ballot 1874 Supreme Court of Canada 1875 becomes final court of appeal for criminal matters in 1888 though appeals on constitutional issues to the Britainbased Judicial Committee of the Privy Council do not end until 1949Mackenzie a working class man he was a stone mason however when he was elected he was a newspaper publisher and business man He was not as charismatic as John A thhe was a 19 century liberal who believed in small government free trade and was stubborn in his ways in addition to being a reformer believing in egalitarianism He takes over in 1873 and wins Mackenzie has a majority government refuses to get a knighthood from the queen 3 times did not believe it was right because he was from a working class background The economy flounders and he fails as a PM Mackenzie is urged by his liberal supporters to introduce high tariffs to protect Canadian industry from US competition He will not do so he believes in free trade and will not compromise on this issue John A Macdonald returns to power in 1878 on the National Policy platform of high tariffswill compromise on high tarrifs and calls it the national policy Said to promote urban manufacturing proposes a national economic strategy It is controversial and does not bring about unity entirely Some criticized it because you have to lower your prices Some argue that the national policy protects inefficient manufactures and that is in the interest of big businessesGeorge Stephen of the Bank of Montrealsenior partner along with Donald Smith The year of the transcontinental is completed Critics will say the business syndicate headed up by BMO had too many perksfree land millions of acres it had the already depleted sections of the railway All its capital stock would be tax free and it gets a provision against any railway built to the south for 20 years the monopoly clauseRailway and tariffs become a source of western Canadian discontentThis will lead to high prices with people saying they will be ripped off The monopoly clause is ended early The trade off is that any line that connects has to charge 85 to the Canadian rate Assigned reading by Kenneth Norrie challenges western Canadian grievances complaints about those being excluded the idea of Macdonalds national policy is to attach the west as a dependent hinterland in central Canada Cooperative movement EA Partridge Manitoba Grain Growers Company 1906pooling your resources to buy and sell goods collectively run by a socialist EA Partridge for 27 000 members as a way to resist domination by central Canada That is not to say the west did not progress as well All eastwest rail traffic will head through Winnipegit becomes a rdboom townCanadas 3 Largest city with 115 000 by 1911Alberta and Saskatchewan become provinces in 1905 but do not receive control over subsurface mineralsthere was disputes because the federal government retained control and the rights of the minerals in the ground D Second Riel Rebellion 1885 Gabriel Dumont1884 travels to Montana where Riel isLouis David RielAmerican citizen now did not forget his people believed he was godly driven His new name is biblical and says that the metis are gods chosen people and speaks of possibility of a new papacy in western Canada These are dillusional views he had and he was in Montreal secretly in the 1870s it made him more determined to take up the cause of his people he saw justice He had about 250 fighters with him and establishes a provisional government Batoche Saskatchewan provisional Mtis governmentMetis fighters will first attack Fort Carleton where they seize weapons and then move to Duck Lake killing 12 mounties Macdonald will send troops out by the trans continental railway In the mean time the border between Saskatchewan and Alberta in frog lake Frog Lake Creepromises made to them under the Indian act were not respected big bear their leader proceeds with caution They bring gatling guns riel is captured Riels controversial trial and execution November 1885 Judge Hugh Richardsontried in regina with an all white anglo jury He will refuse to enter a plea of insanity and wants to conduct a political trial against the state Sometimes brilliant sometimes incoherent on the stand He is found guiltyJudge Richardson is recommended by the jury to show compassion In cases of treason he as no choice but to impose the death penalty It is appealed the court and the bench is reaffirmed in the NWT and up to the privy council in England Only John A Macdonald can spare Riels life He is urged to do so by French Canadian members of parliament riel is seen as an offender for rights in the west thMacdonald will send a medical team 23 of doctors declare riel sane and makes the decision of justice to take his course and riel is hanged on the 16 of November 1885 The fallout will be very significant In Quebec it was seen as anglo Ontario as imposing its will It adds to the sense of anger in western Canada Macondald is determined to crush this in its infancyBig Bear 3 yearsspared life because he counselled caution and got out after 1 year in jail because of grave health Maconald and others felt there were national concerns that trumped national ones and Ontario would lead in the provincial rights movement a so called compact theory of confederation Ontarios campaign in 1887 against disallowed powers were all about frustrated ambitions from Ontario governments to be the new leader in the nation It will be joined by Quebec who fears an anglo dominated federal government which in these years was attached to policy of a british led anglo imperialism Theme QuestionWhere and why did ththregional discontent build in Canada during the late19 and early20 centuries Industrialization and Social StrainththA Urban Life and Social Reform Growth and signs of progresspeople pouring into the westa sign of growth Alberta and Saskatchewanby 1911 over 800 000 people in the two provinces In 1904 Wilfred Laurier in his most famous quote said as the 19 century was filled by the united states the 20 century belongs to Canada rdthThat year laurier charters a second transcontinental railway Canadian cities are growing with urbanization Torontos population was 200 000 it had tripled since 1870 Montreals was 300 000tripling in the last 3 of the 19 century In these settings small shops and enterprises turn into factories that are employing hundreds and sometimes thousands of people There were industrial fairs attracting people to the CNE These would speak to the idea of tremendous progress and the coming of age of a nation 18701900 inflation the value quadruples to 850 000 dollars of industrial production More firms and companies are being established Between 190012 a little more than 50 companies were incorporated in industrial concerns by the end of that over 600investment is coming in at over a billion dollars 14 by the time the war comes around and goes into stocks and bonds of companies American investment is also coming By WWI nearly 300 million dollars American investment is going into branch plans The business man became the hero He was producing wealth someone to be followed in terms of their ingenuity and their industrious They wanted to get ahead Early industrial capitalism was focused on maximum output and there was not a lot of regulation by the stateNew transcontinental railways Grand Trunk Pacific and Canadian Northernlaurier asks that the Grand Trunk Railway builds it and creates a new company to build it a subsidiaryGTPacific Laurier helped the GTP would cooperate with western based Canadian Northern but the two cannot reach a deal The CN builds its own railway At the time this was a sign to many that Canadas future looked very ththbrightRed Marquis wheatin the late 19early 20 century the price goes down by half and it increases wheat manual production techniques by twenty fold The wheat boom occurs Farming is mechanizing Between 1890 and 1914 in the west Wheat production 40 bushels in 1890 to 160 million it quadrupled Larger markets for production of agricultural goods in cities with more people there is more consumption 1907 Quebec Bridge disaster Phoenix Bridge Company lack of regulation Government was not doing its job in making sure things were done well It was across the St Lawrence by Qcity And 1800 metres long it created a world record and was an engineering marvel Its collapse was covered in newspapers across America with 75 people being killed The PBC was hired to build it but never built something that long Government inspectors were not there on site there was no set standard codes to follow recommendations on maximum weight or stress on rivets were ignored because they wanted to get it done as fast and as cheap as possible The PBC in their contract for every month they were late they had to pay 5000 fine This shows the need for greater government involvement Urban overcrowding and slumsliving conditions in cities become difficult They need to be close to their place of work because public transportation does not go to outlying areas The arly years were street cars The suburbs like in Ottawa were a retreat and a way to get away from crime Poorer parts of the city had slums There was a polarization of wealth In the turn of the century the poorest city was Montreal In Ontario the bottom percent of income earners control 2 of the wealth in the province The top 10 controls 23 of the wealth Toronto does not get a water treatment facility until 1910sewage pumped into lake Ontario The government did not have the money and often not the will There were people who were pushing reform Many are being motivated by greater social justice and are appalled at what is going on Many will be motivated by fear if you do not do something the social problems could turn into social turmoil People will turn to radical ideologiesSocial Gospelmuch of the early reform comes from the church and the social gospel movement The idea of bringing the kingdom of heaven to earth Most of the leaders were in protestant churches particularly the participatoryless hierarchal ones All churches at some level get involved including the catholic church Pope Leo XIII talked about the need for catholic social relations and worried about the increasing conflict in industrial society and stressed the need for greater humanity People are being enticed by mediamovies and roller skating dance halls These were a moral problem for people in the church Other possible threats are social Darwinism Reformers form the progressive movement Urban progressives believed that with the rise of science in universities and evidence based on social sciences that you could research and uncover the reasons for the problems in society address them fix themProgressives Herbert Baxter Ames City Below the Hill 1897 politician conducts a massive social study on Montreal What he comes up with is personal failure class struggles poor housing not enough healthcare or social insurancesecurity Construction All those people are in the building trades Those who were in cities were known to be arrested for vagrancy Governments did not have money The idea persisted in society that unemployment was a personal failure and if the state provided assistance easily to people would become dependent on the state Support would come in the form of vouchers for food or fuelChild labour11 of torontos work force is child labour in 1900 Everyone has to work They earn about 13 of a skilled labour but it was necessary B Social Divisions and the WorkplaceAnticombines legislation 1889 1910in economic downturns companies would cooperate with each other and participate in working out prices This ACL is very weak and there were many loopholes There continued to be enough price fixing and legislation to strengthen it in 1910 after world war I was there even the first prosecution the bottom line is governments are fearful in these years of being too harsh on capital They do not want to discourage investment which could increase unemployment 1886the Ontario standards act One inspector is hired for the entire provinceLarger more alienating workplacesjobs are becoming more intense and alienating In the small shops in the early phases of industrialization a person would take pride in their work and see the end product You would often know your boss Now there is a move towards assembly lines and the idea of job breakdown into smaller parts so they can be reformed by less skilled lower paid easily replaceable people Scientific Management Frederick Winslow TaylorAmerican engineer who believes you control the movement of each worker so they produce the max efficiency This is the idea of stop watches etc prior to 1872 unions are illegal in Canada and considered to be a conspiracy and a strength to trade Employers did not have to recognize them even if they were People would have to go on strike 1907 Industrial Disputes Investigation Act compulsory investigation and conciliation but the report is nonbinding Deputy Minister of Labour William Lyon Mackenzie King puts faith in the influence of public opinionemployers make an application to the government to the IDIA and the government says you cannot go on strike or be locked out You cannot go on strike until a conciliator is appointed someone to look at the problems and make a report the problem is the report is nonbinding no one has to pay attention to it What king believed was that by putting it forward it would show who was in dispute and the force of public opinion would change peoples ways Before the act is declared king believed you do not compel settlements it is not sincere in the heart1886 Ontario Factory Act C Unions Assigned reading by Peter DeLottinville on Joe Beefs Charles McKiernans Tavern demonstrating an emerging working class culturethis was a place for emergency assitance for strikers he created a place where transiats could stay and a place where workers gathered sung their own songs and made fun of employers There was one case where working class culture is emerging There are other examples The rise of unions an opposition to conditions faced in the work place One of the most prominent early examples was the knights of labour Knights of Labourcomes from the us in the early 1870s and by the mid 1880s has over 10 000 members in Ontario It takes into its ranks skilled and unskilled workers and promotes political party for labour talks of the general form of society creating an egalitarian system It is peculiar it is not crazy about strikes because it wants a cooperative society It wants to promote arbitration a settlement imposed by a rdneutral 3 party Many skilled workers become impatient with the knights of labour Skilled workers are facing immediate challenges like the status of their jobs They want wages and hours of work with bread and butter issues to be stressed They claim that their interests are being watered down by the interest in general reform Skilled workers gravitate to craft unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labour formed in 1886 craft unions come to dominate Canadas Trades and Labour Congress formed in 1883There is the development of craft unions comprised of people from certain skills skilled workers who affiliate and link themselves with American unions This dynamic creates division in the Canadian unionskilled would not accept the unskilled and their unions would often not cooperate with each other There would be division between English Canada workers and those in QuebecCatholic unions in Quebec starting in 1907priests as counsellors within unions What we get is immunization but there is increasing division in Canadian labour Skilled workers in Ontario will dominate the major central body in this country which is called the trades and labour congressCraft vs Industrial unions including its regional dimension frontier areas such as the West gravitate more to industrial unions and radicalismsocialism This division between skilled vs unskilled skilled will stress wanting to join industrial unionsregional dimension In resource dis areas in company towns with miners and other people less skilled workers people who are coming for more opportunity western Canada radical industrial unions take hold because of bad conditions for miners creates division and weakens the movement Rise and fall of the Industrial Workers of the World in Western Canadaa movement starting to emerge socialist government and by 1910 a group called the IWW advocate socialism general strikes the only way they are going to beat mine owners is by starting strikes everyone off the job They emerge in western Canadian mining sector railways Their popularity is also do to the fact they print literature in many languages and provide medical services and all types of recreation They are still regarded as a threat many of their organizers from the US are deported and throughout this process the attitude of the skilled workers who are looking after wages and hours of work are supportive of the actions against radical groups like the IWW As we see industrial capital emerging there are problems and protest the protest has its own divisions in ththits ranks why labour cannot accomnplish things within its own ranks Theme QuestionOutline the rise and social consequences of late19 and early20 century urbanization and industrialization in CanadaGreat Depression 192939 B Richard Bedford Bennett 19301935Blasting Canada out of the Depression by raising tariffsworsened the situation Canada was a trading nation commerce plummets and unemployment by 1933 is 30Bennett blankets newspapers and Bennett buggies cars pulled by horsesPrairie hardships falling wheat prices dust bowl gras
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