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Week 9 – The Postwar Middle East.docx

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Week 9The Postwar Middle EastDefined by the west by certain media perspectivesreligious fundamentalism and against democracy stereotypesIn the West we see the Middle East as one of the worlds most volatile regions oIts a result of externals factors not part of the actual culture Decolonization in the Middle East 19451964Its order from treaty of Paris in 1919after WW II they had full independence but they were still impacted by the west oThe Middle East that we see on maps today was constructed not by the Arabs who resided there but the European powers at the Treaty of Paris during 1919The victors of the First World War specifically Britain and France brought divergent interests to the bargaining table but their concerns dovetailed only slightly with desires of the affected Arabs oFollowing World War II the Levant and Palestine broke free from Britain and France followed soon by the French colonies in Northern AfricaWhen Algeria at last won its bloody independence in 1962 the entire Arab world had successfully navigated the road to independenceOne factor making the Middle East unique in comparison to other world regions is the strong sense of belonging to a common culture with a rich historyThese roots provide a foundation for challenging western values assumptions and institutions by providing an alternative model for capital markets individualism and secular government Arabs have a sense of common identity rooted not only in Islam but an earlier history and common disaffection with the West and colonialismPanArabism the idea that a fraternity connected all Arab peoples reflected an 1960s ideal of reuniting the Arab people artificially divided by the Western colonial powersUmmya reflects an idea of an abstract brotherhood among all Islamic peoplesWater shortagesresolvement of the Palestinian problemWhat defines the middle east was a sense of injusticein the past the Arab world thwas ahead of the west but in the 20 c the western empires split them up and made them weaker defeat of the ottoman empiredidnt keep their promise split them upNassers Arab Socialism 19541967Suez Crisisstomp out Nassers dream to make a better Arab world Nassers forward path marked an embrace of modernity applying technology crafting a vigorous Arab identity and nationalizing foreign companies in order to industrialize Nasseradmired the west wanted to model the Arab world after itthe key to liberation was to copy western civilization science and industry in order to become strong and independenceoOn the other hand he was upset bc the west didnt treat Arabs as brothers but as lesser humans oMore traditionalists groups rose up against Nasser trying to assonate himThe Suez Crisis 1956oPlan to build a dame on the Nileperfect example of Arab socialism trying to catch up to the west needed western expertise and loans to build it US tried to help with money and engineersbut they refused to give him arms So he went to the soviet unionthe US decided to take away the money to build the dame in retaliation oHe decided to take over a British and French corporation on Egyptian soil1956 the British and French Invadedforced them to leave But this resulted in global outcry so they leftNasser felt like he defeated colonialism made him a Arab heroNasser oUnique Politician First Populist Immense Popularity Wider Arab Audience panArabismHe made it seem like he was in touch with the Arab pop oBrief Union with Syria UAR oPolicies very influential Baathist PartiesArab Socialism oArab Socialism was a peculiarly personal articulation of a formula to lift average Arabs from poverty to restore the dignity of the Arab world to modernize Arab economies and to cut the ties of colonial dominationoArab nationalismsecular modernization copying westoEgypts economy did not benefit and wealth of the peasantrynot providing benefits he promisedchanging their culturecaused dissolution and he became unpopular oSignificance Elements of Arab Socialism have survived in the Baathist parties of Syria Iraq and JordanThe model of holding power through state spending and using police to target dissent is a common authoritarian model throughout the Middle EastThe relative failure of Arab Socialism to meets its goals and navigate between tradition and modernity has led people in the Arab world to look for new models of development including IslamThe Iranian Revolution 19791985The shah like Nasser that traditional culture of Islam needed to be weakenedany forms of traditionalism was attacked
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