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HIS2150 Final Exam Review.docx

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University of Ottawa

HIS2150FinalExamReview1EncountersNativesReadingsfromDigitalTextbookCorrecting Myths and MisconceptionsOriginsPrehistoric Patterns of ChangeThe Culture of Prehistoric AmericaPueboans used dams and irrigation canals to water their crops10001300 CEoAnceteral Puebloans culture spread across North AmericaoColorado Southern Utaho25 000 separate colonies establishedoAncestors of modern day Pueblo Indians1400 BCEoPoverty PointoBanks of lower Mississippi River near present day MississippioShown Signs of Mexican influenceoSettlements along Mississippi Ohio Missouri and ArkansasBefore European arrival Extensive Native American trade of flint copper and other goods700 BCEAdenaoBuilt large mounds and earthworks in Southern OhioPurpose BurialoLived in small villages oHunting fishing gathering wild plants modest farmingtrading100 BCE HopewelloMoundsoVillages in Ohio Indiana Michigan Illinois Wisconsin IowaMissourioHunting fishing gatheringcultivating crops cornoDeveloped and extensive trading networko450 CE Decline due to colder climate750 BCE MississippiansoMound diggersoMississippi ValleyGulf CoastoCultivating and improved variety of corn using flint hoes instead of digging sticksIncreased agricultural productivityBuilding of larger citiesoEstimated population of 20 000oFat topped mounds and protect cities by stockadesoCahokiaNative America on the Eve of Contact 1492 CE Columbus arrival to the Caribbean60 or 70 million people 12 million in Canada and USAMexico 350 distinct groups250 different languagesPolitical structure Kinship systems and economiesDivision Europeans colonizers adopting a divideandconquer policiesSouthwest conflicts over resources and landoYaquisPimas access to water due to soil aridity Hopi Zuni vs ApacheVulnerable to encroachment by the SpanishCreeks Choctaws Cherokees SeminolesthoLived Extensive to European colonization was delayed until 17 century Lack of minerals1600s Alliance of Algonquians and HuronsoFought a bitter war against the IroquoisoAlgonquians lost and driven from territory oReduction of population due to measles and small poxIroquoisoLived in log homesoCouncilsoInfluence of womenKinship and Religion Native Americans societies shared common characteristicsMany organized on the principle of KingshipoFormed the basis of the political economic and religious systemoReligious position ownership and inheritance of propertyEmphasis on nuclear familyEmphasis on religionoSophisticated rich ceremonial life intricate mythology and profound speculations about creation
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