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HSS1100 Midterm: Midterm #2

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Health Sciences
William Yan

Ch 4: Engaging in Physical Activity Only 15 of Canadian adults meet the physical activity recommendation of 150 minutes per week o 7 of children and adolescents are sufficiently active o Men are more active than women Physical activity: movements by skeletal muscles, results in energy expenditure Exercise: planned, structured, repetitive movements done to improve physical fitness; not all physical activity is exercise; Canada recommends 60 minutes per day Physical fitness: attributes, health or performancerelated Benefits of Physical Activity: o Reduced risk of heart disease (the heart becomes stronger) o Prevention of hypertension (high BP) o Improved blood lipid profile (exercise unclogs arteries) o Improved bone health (strengthens bone; prevents osteoarthritis and osteoporosis) o Improved weight management (direct effect on metabolic rate) o Prevention of type 2 diabetes o Increased longevity o Improved immunity to disease (unless activity is stressful) o Improved mental health Cardiorespiratory endurance: heart, lungs, and blood vessels function efficiently o Improved through aerobic exercise (i.e. jogging, bicycling, swimming, etc.) o Aerobic power: volume of oxygen consumed by the muscles o Aerobic capacity can be tested through a graded exercise test Cardiorespiratory Fitness Program o Determine exercise frequency exercise 35 times per week (3 for beginners) o Determine exercise intensity measure target heart rate (percentage of maximum heart rate; desired intensity for aerobic exercise), used along with measuring pulse during workout to determine intensity o Determine exercise time only 2030 minutes is needed o The recovery principle wait 1824 hours between workouts o Frequency, intensity, or time? first increase frequency, then length, then intensity Improving Muscular Strength and Endurance o Muscular strength amount of force a muscle group is capable of exerting One repetition maximum (1RM): maximum amount of weightresistance that can be liftedmoved only once o Muscular endurance ability to exert force frequently without tiring; duration o Tension principle external resistance (i.e. weight lifting) creates tension o Overload principle regularly create tension in muscles greater than what youre accustomed to o Specificity of training principle specific muscles will respond to specific exercises o Recovery principle allow 48 hours to recover (exercise alternate muscle groups) o Types of Muscle Contractions Isometric muscle contraction: force produced without muscle movement; stabilizes a particular body part while another is moving (i.e. planking) Concentric muscle contraction: force produced while shortening the muscle (joint movement) Eccentric muscle contraction: force produced while lengthening the muscle o Methods of Providing Resistance
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