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HSS1100 Study Notes .docx

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University of Ottawa
Health Sciences
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MicrobiologyImmunologyGeneral Principals of Microbiology Immunology study of protection from foreign macromolecules invading microorganismsour responsesClasses of Organisms viruses chlamydia mycoplasma grow on nonliving media bacteriaparasites Vary in size small 12 microns complexitygrowth conditions Bacteria in body skin GI tract not stomachtoo acidicSterile body parts CNS urinary tract blood when IN body Basic StructureViruses nucleic acids RNA OR DNA surrounded by protein shell capsid enter living cellsinject nucleic acid so synthetic processes inside cells start making virus Chlamydia more complex multiplies in living cells Bacteria Prokaryotes have rigid cell wall genetic materials organized into circular chromosome no nucleus nucleoid can create own proteins RNADNA Mycoplasmas no rigid cell wall more delicate Eukaryotes all unicellularmulticellular animalsplants have nucleus contains genetic material Normal Bacterial FloraEither resident always in body or transient found in specific locationGI Tract colons inhabited by anaerobescoliform organisms Skin coagulase ve staphylococci Clinically Important protect from infection invasive organisms metabolism make vit K immune stimulation disturbed by antibiotics controlled by host defenses in cultures can confuse lab results Bacterial InfectionsHost DefensesBalanced ecosystem not harmful to body if in right placeInfection occurs when 1 species predominates invades normally sterile siteTo Protect UsMechanical Barriers skin deeper layers at risk saliva mucous hair tears Phagocytosis ingestskills bacteria defense mechanism Antibodies can alter of kill bacteria Complement plasma proteins that resist bacterial infectionCell Mediated Immunity immune system machrophages Tcells NK cellsHow Bacteria Gets In st Adherence 1step needed for bacterial invasion Ligands bind to receptors in cell surfaceExotoxin Production damage host tissues made by bacteria then releasedMetastatic Spread spread throughout blood stream badcan spread thru bodyCompromised Patients dont have all antimicrobial defenses bc of disease medical surgical procedures medication Infectious DiseaseImmune ResponseMicrobial Infectious DiseaseResult from interaction bween hostmicroorganisms must adherepenetratemultiply Microorganisms invisible to naked eye most are harmless usefulInfection1 Colonization establishmultiply wout producing change human2 Contamination deposition wout multiplication contaminate object Clinical Infection disease when changes cause functional damage to host SubClinical Infection hard to diagnose no symptoms Pathogenicity ability to produce diseaseVirulence relative capacity to cause damage degree of pathogenicity Opportunistic Pathogens rarely cause disease in humans but do so if defense mechanisms breached compromised Pathogenesis of Infectious DiseaseWhen pathogenic microorganisms enter body1 Microorganism strives to multiply invade tissuescause disease 2 Host strives to block invasion destroy microorganisms Whether microorganism causes infection depends on1 TransmissionRoutes of entry inhalation ingestion break in protective barrier direct deposit2 Pathogenicity capacity to inflict damage result of invasivenesstoxinogenicityInvasiveness microorganisms overcome hosts defense mechanisms by adhering to persisting body surfaces protecting themselvesavoiding ingestion destruction by phagocytes Bacteria must adhere to evadeinvade hostuse surface structures pilli fimbriae capsules for protectionenzymes coagulaseaccelerates plasma clottinghyaluronidase hydrolyses hyaluronic acid helps bacteria by making fluids spread easierToxinogenicity bacteria produce toxins to damage host tissues upset system 2 ClassesExotoxins proteins excreted by living cells have specific affinities active in small concentrations thermolabile heat sensitiveEndotoxins freed only when cell disintegrates less specific less potent thermostable heat resistant cause clinical effects fever malaise shockImmunization VaccinationImmunity protection against infectious disease2 Types1 Nonspecific Immunity Natural innate protects against any invader doesnt discriminateSkin mechanical barrier acidic pH oil sweat lower temp than rest of bodyMucous mechanical barrier cilia of respiratory tract lysozymes pH stomach
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