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HSS 1100 - Microbiology and Immunology Full Course Notes.doc

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University of Ottawa
Health Sciences

MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGYUOTTAWAHSS 1100Gram Positive Cocci Staphylococcus Exotoxinsexotoxins are the problemdepending where they bind they can cause different issuescytotoxins haemolysins enterotoxins exfoliative toxins causes TSSenterotoxinexotoxin made inside the GI tract superantigensexfolaitive toxinscause skin to come apart and slough offendotoxins embedded in outer layer membrane thata re gram positive Enzymessome staph create enzymescoagulasecoagulation of fibrin made by almost all pathogenic staph betalactamasepenicillinasedestroys penicillinS aureusassociated with the skincarried in anterior nares axillathroat perineum and hands 8590 of strains that are isolated in the hospital are penicillin resistant important cause of hospital acquired nosocomial infections from stitch abcesses infected wounds or generalized infections can cause localized purulent infections such aspustulezitpimpleboilinfected hair shaft styesebaceous gland infectionconjunctivitispink eyeotitisear infection pneumonia osteomyelitis septicaemia endocarditis food poisoning TSS scalded skin syndromepreventative measures include aseptic technique in ER and OR wound precaution education of health care workers hand washing MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGYUOTTAWAHSS 1100Sepidermis part of normal skinmucous membrane floranonpathogenic except in compromised patients it can cause postop infections brain open heart endocarditis shunt infections opportunistic pathogen Streptococciarranged in pairs forming chains stretosgreek for twistedsubdivided into groups based onhaemolytic properties alpha and beta RBCscarbohydrate C antigen Lancefield classificationMprotein divides betahaemolytic mostly group Aalhpapartially destoy red blood cells betacompletely destroy RBCsSpyogenesgroup A strep causes strep throatuntreated strep throat can cause rheumatic heart disease as pericardium has antigens similar to those in strep and body can recognize those antigens as strep causing an autoimmune response can also cause impetigo cellulitis and other skin infectionscan also cause fever and septicaemia caused by toxins streptolysins O and Sneutrophils and macrophagesstreptococccal pyrogenic exotoxins Spes that causes scarlet fever rashalso some enzymeshyaluronidase helps spreading of bacteria by destroying CT between cells allowing the bacteria in between almost all are penicillin G sensitive control by education aseptic obstetric procedures early detection and treatment can also cause toxins responsible for necrotizing fasciitis hijacks human plasminogen from blood attaches to surface and activates it into protease and is good for spreadingbacteriphage has gene coding for enzyme that allows bacteria to escape entrapment and death by neutrophils WBCsMICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGYUOTTAWAHSS 1100Sagalactiaegroup B found in healthy vagina can cause neonatal infections early septicaemiarespiratory distress at birth high fatality ratedelayed meningitic form 112 weeks postpartumsquelaeS pneumoniaeaka pneumociccus diplococci two circles joined togetherpolysaccharide capsule had antiphagocytic propertiesfound in nasopharynx of healthy people can cause lobar pneumonia meningitis elderly alcoholics crowded living and vaccinationGram Negative CocciNeisseria
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