Chapter 1- Promoting Healthy Behaviour Change
Reductionism and Holism
Reductionist method entails the breakdown of an entity (the human body) to its most fundamental
parts (systems). Macro to microscopic. Neurology, pathology, physiology, etc.
Understanding these mechanisms should allow use to heal the body when one of these deviate from the
Holism entails the synthesis of the entire entity (the human body), including the surrounding
environment in which it interacts. Microscopic to macroscopic.
The path to optimum health and wellbeing is achieved through BOTH paradigms.
Mortality- Death rate
Morbidity- Illness rate
Health- dynamic, ever-changing process of trying to achieve individual potential in the physical, social,
mental, occupational, emotional, environmental, and spiritual dimensions.
Wellness- similar to health, a dynamic, ever-changing process in which a person attempts to reach his or
her potential in each of health’s components
Health promotion- combines educational, organizational, policy, financial, and environmental supports
to enhance healthy lifestyle choices and to help people change negative health attitudes and
Primary prevention- actions designed to stop problems before they start
Secondary prevention- intervention early in the development of a healthy problem to reduce symptoms
or to halt its progression.
Tertiary prevention- treatment or rehabilitation efforts aimed at limiting the effects of a disease.
Androcentry- refers to viewing the world from a male perspective
Sex insensitivity- means overlooking sex as an important variable
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Chapter 11- Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer Cardiovascular diseases (CVD): diseases of the heart and blood vessels
Cardiovascular system: a complex system comprising of the heart and blood vessels that transports
nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and enzymes throughout the body and regulates temperature, the water
level of cells, and the acidity levels of body components.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - have greatly aided individuals with CVD. Cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure, performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain
function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a
person in cardiac arrest.
Atria- the two upper chambers of the heart, which receive blood
Ventricles- the two lower chambers of the heart, which pump blood through the blood vessels.
Arteries- vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Arterioles- small arteries
Capillaries- Minute blood vessels that branch out from the arterioles; through which the exchange of
oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products happens.
Veins- vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Sinoatrial node (SA node)-Node serving as a form of natural pacemaker for the heart
Arteriosclerosis- Refers to narrowing and hardening of the arteries.
Atherosclerosis- a type of arteriosclerosis characterized by plaque deposits in the inner lining of arteries
Plaque- a combination of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin.
Heart attack or Myocardial infarction: a blood clot that prevents blood from flowing through the heart.
Coronary thrombosis: a blood clot in a coronary artery
Collateral circulation- following the complete occlusion of a coronary artery, rerouting of needed blood
through unused or underused blood vessels.
Ischemia- insufficient blood flow relative to the demand of the tissue which results in a decrease in
Angina pectoris: a severe chest pain occurring as a result of reduced oxygen flow to the heart
Beta blockers- a type of drug used to treat angina; controls potential over activity of the heart muscle CHD (Coronary Heart disease) - Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease in which a waxy substance
called plaque (plak) builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to
your heart muscle.
Transient ischemic attacks- mild form of stroke; often an indicator of impending major stroke.
Stroke- results when the blood supply to the brain is severely reduced or cut off.
Thrombus- blood clot
Embolus- blood clot forced through the circulatory system
Aneurysm- a weakened blood vessel that may bulge under pressure and, in severe cases, burst.
Hypertension- chronic high blood pressure; 140/80 mmHg or greater
Essential hypertension- hypertension as a result of unknown causes
Secondary hypertension- hypertension as a result of another condition such as kidney disease, obesity,
or tumours of the adrenal glands.
Systolic pressure- the upper number in the blood pressure fraction, refers to the pressure on the walls
of the arteries when the heart contracts.
Diastolic pressure- the lower number in the blood pressure fraction, refers to pressure on the walls of
the arteries during the relaxation phase of heart activity.
Arrhythmia- an irregularity in heartbeat
Fibrillation- a sporadic, quivering pattern of heartbeat resulting in inefficient moving of the blood
Congestive heart failure- occurs when the heart muscle is damaged or overworked and lacks the
strength to maintain blood circulation
Congenital heart disease- heart disease present at birth
Rheumatic heart disease- a heart disease caused by unresolved streptococcal infection of the throat.
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) – a combination of protein, triglycerides, and cholesterol in the blood
that accumulate on arterial walls.
High- density lipoproteins (HDLs)- a combination of protein, triglycerides, and cholesterol that facilitate
the transport of LDLs to the liver for metabolism and elimination from the body.
Triglycerides: the most common form of fat in the body, consumed and manufactured in the body
Electrocardiogram- a record of the electrical activity of the heart measured during a stress test. Angiography- a technique for examining blockages in heart arteries. A catheter is inserted into the
arteries, a dye injected, and an X-ray taken to find the blocked areas.
Positron emission tomography (PET scan): method for measuring heart activity by injecting a patient
with a radioactive tracer scanned electronically to produce a 3D image of the heart and arteries.
Coronary bypass surgery- a surgical technique in which one of more blood vessels are implanted to
bypass one or more clogged coronary arteries.
Angioplasty- a technique in which a catheter with a balloon at the tip is inserted into a clogged artery;
the balloon is inflated to flatten fatty deposits against artery walls, allowing blood to flow more freely.
Thrombolysis- injection of an agent to dissolve clots and restore some blood flow, thereby reducing the
amount of tissue that dies from ischemia
Cancer- a large group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
Neoplasm- a new growth of tissue that serves physiologic functions, resulting from uncontrolled,
abnormal cellular development.
Tumour- a neoplasmic mass that grows more rapidly than surrounding tissues.
Malignant- very dangerous or harmful; refers to a cancerous tumour
Benign- harmless refers to a non-cancerous tumour
Biopsy- microscopic examination of tissue to determine if a cancer is present
Metastasis- process by which cancer spreads from one area to different areas of the body
Carcinogens- cancer causing agents
Oncogenes- suspected cancer-causing genes present on chromosomes
Proto-oncogenes- genes that can become oncogenes under certain conditions
Oncologists- physicians who specialize in the treatment of malignancies.
Malignant melanoma- a virulent cancer of the melanin (pigment-producing portion) of the skin.
(Skin cancer symptoms)
ABCDE rule- A is asymmetry, B is for border irregularity, C is for colour, D is for diameter greater than
6mm, while E is for evolvings.
Pap test- a procedure in which cells taken from the cervical region are examined for abnormal cellular
activity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- a device that uses magnetic fields, radio waves, and computers to
generate an image of internal tissues of the body for diagnostic purposes without the use of radiation.
Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)- a machine that uses radiation to view internal organs not
normally visible on X-rays.
Radiotherapy- the use of radiation to kill cancerous cells
Chemotherapy- the use of drugs to kill cancerous cells
BMI- The body mass index (BMI), or Quetelet index, is a measure for human body shape based on an
individual's weight and height.
Human papilloma virus (HPV)- Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus from the papillomavirus family
that is capable of infecting humans.
Chapter 12- Infectious and non-infectious conditions
Pathogen- a disease- causing agent
Epidemic- disease outbreak that affects many people in a community or region at the same time
Virulent- strong enough to overcome host resistance and cause disease
Multifactorial disease- disease caused by interactions of several factors
Sickle cell anemia- genetic disease resulting from chromosomal abnormalities commonly found among
individuals of African descent
Immunological competence- ability of the immune system to defend the body from pathogens
Autoinoculation – transmission of a