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HSS 1101 Course Notes

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The Paradigms of HealthReductionism and Holism Reductionist method entails the breakdown of an entity the human body to its most fundamental parts systemsMacroscopic to microscopic biomedical model of health Neurology immunology endocrinology pathology physiology etc Rationale understanding these mechanisms should allow us to heal the body when one or more of these systems deviate from the norm disease or illness of the body Mechanistic systems approachEvidenced by biotechnology advanced surgical methods pharmaceutical intervention etc Invasive bombards a specific system Tertiary health treatment is the cornerstone Deals with symptoms origins of disease The inherent challenge this paradigm disempowers the individualThe individual loses the sense of having autonomy control of their body and wellbeing Holistic method entails the synthesis of the entire entity the human body including the surrounding environment in which it interactsMicroscopic to macroscopic unityHealth synergy of mind body and environmentUnified approach nutrients human movement recovery regeneration cognitive and emotional balance etcAyurvedic TCM naturalpathic and other alternative medicinesPractical and noninvasive affects many systems at oncePrimary health prevention is the cornerstoneHow life expresses itself through the living human body Origins of health Inherent challenge due to the number of variables this paradigm cannot be researched using the traditional scientific method of reductionismnot viewed with the same level of belief in the scientific community beliefproof Parallel Pathways The path to optimum health and wellbeing is achieved through both paradigms of health Holistic health balanced lifestyleHealthy diet sufficient exercise and stretching quality sleep stress management etc Reductionist biomedical intervention should be used when severe or lifethreatening illness and disease need to be treated immediatelyImmediate treatment ACL surgeryShould not be used to replace autonomy and personal selfresponsibilityApplication of both pathways to health gives us the best opportunity for quality of lifeChapter 1Promoting Healthy Behaviour Change Part 1What is health A dynamic everchanging processInterrelated multidimensionalphysical mental emotional occupational social environmental and spiritualHealth and wellness often used interchangeably health to be well Health and Sickness Defined by ExtremesChanging views of health Traditional definition absence of diseaseRevised definition complete physical mental and social wellbeing not merely the absence of disease or infirmity World Health Organization 1947Health More Than a StatisticMortality rates people are living longerMorbidity rates fewer suffer from infectious diseaseMain causes of death shift from infectious to chronic diseasesAre people truly healthierQuality of life the living years Prevention The Key to Future HealthPrimary prevention actions designed to stop health problems before they startSecondary prevention intervention early in the development of a health problem to reduce symptoms or to halt progressionTertiary prevention treatment or rehabilitation efforts aimed at limiting the effects of a diseaseImproving Your Health Benefits of Achieving Optimal Health Reduced reliance on healthcare systemImproved ability to manage stressStronger immune systemImproved fitness levelsImproved selfconfidenceImproved environmental sensitivity awareness Enhanced spiritual healthMaking HealthWise ChoicesKey Behaviours Get sufficient restEat like a baby when your hungryActive livingProper hygiene and safe sexAvoid tobacco and limit alcoholRegular selfexams and medical checkupsConceptual Models of Population HealthDefinitions p Population healthis an approach to health that aims to improve the health of the entire population and to reduce health inequities among population groups PHACp Social determinants of healthborn grow up live work and age and the systems put in place to deal with illness WHOp Health inequity are avoidable inequalities in health between groups of people within countries and between countries WHO p Health Health is a state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity WHOSocial Ecology Theory p The social ecology theory assumes that appropriate changes in the social environment will produce changes in individuals p SE theory shows that multiple levels of influence are important for understanding tobacco initiation and interventions to prevent uptake and the development of dependency
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