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chapter 16 aging.docx

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Chapter 16Lifes Transitions the Aging ProcessRedefining Aging Discrimination against people based on age is known as ageism Gerontology study of individual and collective aging processes explores the reasons for aging and the ways in which people cope with and adapt to this processes AgeRelated Characteristics Biological age refers the relative age or condition of the persons organs and body systems Arthritis and other chronic conditions often accelerate biologic age Psychological age refers to persons adaptive capacities such as coping abilities and intelligence and the persons awareness of its own abilities selfefficacySocial persons habits and roles relative to societys expectations Chronological or legal age most common definition in Canada based on chronological years and is used to determine voting rights driving privileges drinking age and eligibility for plans and benefits and host of their rights and obligations Functional age refer to the ways in which people compare to others of similar age What is Normal Aging Gerontologists have devised several categories for specific agerelated characteristicsYoungold 65 to 74 middleold 7584 oldold 85 and over Theories on Aging Biological Theories Wearandtear like everything else in the universe human body wears out The more you abuse your body the faster it will wear out Cellular theory stated that at birth we only have certain number of usable cells programmed to reproduce and divide only a limited number of times Once their circle ends they begin to die and organ deterioration starts to show Autoimmune theory attributes aging to the decline of the bodys immunological system becoming less effective when fighting diseases Genetic mutationtheory proposes that the number of cells exhibiting unusual or different characteristics increases with age the greater the mutation the greater the chances that cells will not function properly leading to eventual dysfunction of body organs and systems Psychosocial Theories Personality developmentadaptation and adjustmentDevelopmental Model it is noted that people must progress through 8 critical stages during their lifetime Attitudes behaviors and beliefs are related to maladjustments in old age often as a result of problems encountered in early stages of a persons life Coping skills of life stresses from childhood on to grown agePhysicalMental ChangesSkin becomes thinner and looses elasticity fat deposits begin to diminish wrinkles are shownBones and joints bone mineral loss exceeds bone mineral accumulation resulting in deterioration of the bone tissue in which bones become fragile and brittle and at an increased risk of fracture Osteoporosis weakened porous and fractured bonesUrinary tract urinary incontinence little urine when laughing or sneezing or little or no controlled when and where urination takes place Incontinence possesses major social physical and emotional problems for the elderly Embarrassment and fear of wetting oneself may cause an older person to become isolated and avoid social functionsHeart and lungs Vital capacity or the amount of air that moves when you inhale or exhale at maximum effort also declines with age Heart muscles deteriorateVision The lens of the eye begins to harden causing specific problems by the age of 40 By age 60 depth perception declines and farsightedness often develops Cataracts clouding of the lens and Glaucoma elevation of pressure within the eyeball become more likely Macular degeneration is the breakdown of the lightsensitive part of the retina responsible for the sharp direct vision need to drive or read
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