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Chapter 11 Cardiovascular Disease.docx

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Chapter 11Cardiovascular Disease CVD Death rates are declining due to advances in medical techniques Refinement in surgical techniques and improvements in heart transplants earlier and better diagnostic procedures and treatments better emergency assistance programs and training of people in cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR have aided individuals with CVDPreventive measures healthy dietary intake regular physical activity and avoiding tobacco Controlling high blood pressure and reducing dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterolArteriosclerosis narrowed hardened arteries Reduced blood flow to vital organsAtherosclerosis fatty streaks Deposits of fatty substances cholesterol cellular waste products calcium and fibrin a clotting material in the blood in the inner lining of an artery Artherosclerosis plaque Plaque may partially or totally block the bloods flow through an artery 2 things can happen 1 Hemorrhage into the plaque or 2 Formation of blood clot THROMBUS on plaques surface When this happens chances of heart attack and stroke increase due to the blocking of the arteryEndothelium inner lining of arteries gets affected by BP cholesterolTGs tobacco These substances enter the blood to affix to the arterial walls eventually obstructing blood flow 3 mayor causes of damage are a dramatic fluctuations in blood pressure B elevated leves of cholesterol triglycerides and glucose in the blood C cigarette smoking Viral infections may also be contributing factors75 blocking results in Angina pectoris Chest pain 90 to 95 blocking results in myocardial infarction heart attack or ischemic stroke if the blood clot is in occluded arteries in the brainCoronary Heart Disease Mayor disease of the cardiovascular systemResults from atherosclerotic plaque accumulation such that a blockage occurs in one or more of the coronary arteries and blood flow is impededMyocardial infarction Heart attack Blockage of the normal blood supply to an area of the heart Brought by Coronary thrombosis blood clot in a coronary artery When blood does not flow normally there is a decrease in oxygen flow If the heart blockage is extremely minor the otherwise healthy heart will adapt over time by using small unused or underused blood vessels to reroute the needed blood this is called Collateral circulation which is a form of self preservation that allows a damage heart muscle to heal itself When heart blockage is more severe body is unable to adapt on its own and outside lifesaving support is criticalAngina Pectoris consequence of Ischemia Symptoms range from a slight feeling of indigestion to a feeling that the heart is being crushed Generally the more severe the oxygen deprivation the more severe the pain is Treatments In mild cases rest is critical More severe cases involve using drugs that affect 1 The supply of blood to the heart muscle or 2 The hearts demand for oxygen Nitroglycerin to used to relax dilate veins diminishing workload Hypertension or chronic high blood pressure it is known as a CVD and as a risk factor for stroke When blood pressure is chronically elevated the workload on the heart is greater which damages the heart ability to pump blood effectively throughout the body and result in heart muscle damage HBP may also damage the interior walls of arteries facilitating plaque accumulation Essential High blood pressure that cannot be attributed to any specific cause And Secondary HBP caused by specific factor such as kidney diseases obesity or tumors of the adrenal glands
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