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Perception and selfawareness 9 questionsHuman communicationBasic Assumptions Process Transactional Multidimensional2 Factors ContentRelationshipFive fundamental principles of communication1be aware of your communication with yourself and others2effectively use and interpret verbal messages3effectively use and interpret nonverbalmessages4listen and respond thoughtfully to others5appropriately adapt messages to others Verbal communicationFactors to consider Tone softloud pitch lowhigh tempo slowfastCommunication styles Passive Discounting your own wants and needs catering to other peoples desires avoids potential conflict individual does not express their true thoughts or feelings afraid to say noAggressive Insensitive to the rights of others intimidates others to get what they want demanding hostile rude and disrespectful PassiveAggressive Person does not state true thoughts or feelings avoids conflict but internally experiences anger does not follow through on expectations or promises results in others feelings frustrated angry confused and resentful Assertive Direct honest and appropriate expression of thoughts and feelings Individual demonstrates selfresponsibility and respects others entails effective listening skills The perception processPerception Understanding or making sense of our sensory experiencesInterpersonal perception The Perception Process Stage 1 Attention and selectingWhat you attend or notice in your environment what you choose to focus on within a range of stimuli in your environment Stage 2 Organizing Concerting information into convenient understandable and efficient patterns that allow us to make sense of what we have observedStage 3 InterpretingAssigning meaning to what we observe Improving your perceptual skills Describe your feelings rather than evaluate othersSolve problems rather than control othersBe Genuine rather than manipulativeEmpathize rather than remain detachedBe flexible Present yourself as equal rather than superior Treat people as uniquetrue dialogueLink details with the big pictureRecognize the elements to which you attribute meaningUse perception checkingBe sensitive to cultural differencesBecome otheroriented give people the benefit of the doubtPerceptual factors SelfFulfilling ProphecyYou make a prediction about a personYou act as if the prediction is trueYour behaviour causes the prediction to come trueWhat you see then strengthens your beliefPrimacyRecencyPrimacy effect is when you attend to and recall the first chunk of information you received rather than the lastRecency effect is the oppositewhat comes last or most recently exerts the most influenceConsistencyWhen we assume an individual is consistent we may ignore or distort perceptions that are inconsistentWe try to back up our existing schema eg Halo effectAttributionsTry to explain the motivation for a persons behaviour Are they in control If so then we usually praise them for positive behaviours and blame them for negative onesAttribution of causality can lead to several barriers selfserving bias overattribution and fundamental attribution errorNon verbal communication 11 questionsWhy focus on nonverbal communication general ideaPrimary means of communicating feelings and attitudes towards othersUsually more believable than verbal messagesCritical in relationship initiation development and terminationCan substitute for complement contradict repeat regulate and accent verbal messages Myths about nonverbal communication general ideaThe ISOLATION myth nonverbal communication is separate from other aspects of communicationThe KEY TO SUCCESS myth Appropriate use of nonverbal communication will ensure effective communicationThe TRANSPARENCY myth nonverbal communication always results in transparency misinterpretationThe SINGLE MEANING myth Every nonverbal cue has a specific single meaning5 dimensions of nonverbal communication important1Kinesics dimensionsa Gestures Some people talk with their hands some dontb Facial expressionsConnect with words to illustrate meaning reveals inner feelingsEX surprise anger fear usually projected first before we can hide the emotionc Eyecontact gaze Functions monitoring regulating expressing Length of gaze corresponded to professionals ability to correctly identify the patients health sit Average individuals spend 5060 of the time in eye contact in a normal conversation Average length of gaze 3 seconds 2 seconds for mutual gaze Speakers spend 40 of time gazing at the listenersListeners spend 75 of time looking at speakers Females tend to gaze more than malesCultural aspects of eye contact asian cultured Body posture Determined by societyOpen vs Closed body position transmitting closureEmotional response Posture and muscle tone can signal the strength of a persons responseEX depression good health self esteem FacilitativeNonFacilitativeLeaning forwardInfrequent or prolonged eye contact
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