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HSS 2305Sept 16 2013Chapter 5Aerobic Respiration and the MitochondrionMito structure and functionMito can act as a sponge to take up Ca from the cell and control it1520 of volume of mammalian liverRegulates cell deathMito membranesoDouble membrane inner and outeroOuter encloses entire mito and is an outer boundaryoCristaeseries of invaginated membranous sheets Increases the surface area oMatrix interior of mitooIntermembrane space between two membranes gellikeoOuter membrane50 lipid by weight different from slide 6oInner membrane has a 31 protein to lipid concentrationoOuter membrane has PORINSpermeable but can closeoInner membrane is highly permeable and needs active transportersThe mito matrixoHas ribosomes smaller and some DNAoPossesses own DNA to make own RNAs and proteins mtDNAoAll mtDNA is MATERNALOxidative Metabolism in the MitoGlycolysis only makes a net synthesis of 2 ATP per glucose oxidized Most of the energy is stored in pyruvate Costs 1 ATP twiceMake 30 more ATP from the pyruvateGlucose2 NAD2 ADP2P2 Pyruvate2 ATP2 NADH2H2H0i2Technically 4 is produced but it costs 2The tricarboxylic Acid TCA CycleoPyruvate is broken down before this into Acetyl CoAoAcetyl CoA is fed into the TCA cycleoAlso called Krebs Cycle after Hans KrebsoThe two carbons removed are completely oxidized to CO2oThree of the reactions reduces NAD to NADH and one reaction readuces FAD to FADH2oCompleted by multienzyme complexpyruvate dehydrogenaseoAcetyl CoA2 H0FAD3NADGDPPi2COFADH3NADH3H 222 GTPHSCoAo5 pairs of electrons are removed and transported to the ETC for ATP productionThe importance of reduced coenzymes in the formation of ATPothe reduced coenzymes of FADH2 and NADHthe primary products of the TCA cycle have lots of highenergy electronsoTwo main steps1 High energy electrons are passed from FADH to NADH to the first of 2a series of electron carriers in the ETC The energy released during ET is stored in the electrochemical gradient of protons across the membrane
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