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HSS 1101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Coronary Artery Disease, Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery, Coronary Circulation


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HSS 1101
Professor
Tien Nguyen
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chapter 1- Promoting Healthy Behaviour Change
Reductionism and Holism
Reductionist method entails the breakdown of an entity (the human body) to its most fundamental
parts (systems). Macro to microscopic. Neurology, pathology, physiology, etc.
Understanding these mechanisms should allow use to heal the body when one of these deviate from the
norm.
Holism entails the synthesis of the entire entity (the human body), including the surrounding
environment in which it interacts. Microscopic to macroscopic.
The path to optimum health and wellbeing is achieved through BOTH paradigms.
Mortality- Death rate
Morbidity- Illness rate
Health- dynamic, ever-changing process of trying to achieve individual potential in the physical, social,
mental, occupational, emotional, environmental, and spiritual dimensions.
Wellness- similar to health, a dynamic, ever-changing process in which a person attempts to reach his or
her potential in each of health’s components
Health promotion- combines educational, organizational, policy, financial, and environmental supports
to enhance healthy lifestyle choices and to help people change negative health attitudes and
behaviours.
(Sex differences)
Primary prevention- actions designed to stop problems before they start
Secondary prevention- intervention early in the development of a healthy problem to reduce symptoms
or to halt its progression.
Tertiary prevention- treatment or rehabilitation efforts aimed at limiting the effects of a disease.
Androcentry- refers to viewing the world from a male perspective
Sex insensitivity- means overlooking sex as an important variable
(TILL PAGE 14)
Chapter 11- Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer

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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD): diseases of the heart and blood vessels
Cardiovascular system: a complex system comprising of the heart and blood vessels that transports
nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and enzymes throughout the body and regulates temperature, the water
level of cells, and the acidity levels of body components.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - have greatly aided individuals with CVD. Cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure, performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain
function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a
person in cardiac arrest.
(THE HEART)
Atria- the two upper chambers of the heart, which receive blood
Ventricles- the two lower chambers of the heart, which pump blood through the blood vessels.
Arteries- vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Arterioles- small arteries
Capillaries- Minute blood vessels that branch out from the arterioles; through which the exchange of
oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products happens.
Veins- vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Sinoatrial node (SA node)-Node serving as a form of natural pacemaker for the heart
Arteriosclerosis- Refers to narrowing and hardening of the arteries.
Atherosclerosis- a type of arteriosclerosis characterized by plaque deposits in the inner lining of arteries
Plaque- a combination of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin.
Heart attack or Myocardial infarction: a blood clot that prevents blood from flowing through the heart.
Coronary thrombosis: a blood clot in a coronary artery
Collateral circulation- following the complete occlusion of a coronary artery, rerouting of needed blood
through unused or underused blood vessels.
Ischemia- insufficient blood flow relative to the demand of the tissue which results in a decrease in
oxygen
Angina pectoris: a severe chest pain occurring as a result of reduced oxygen flow to the heart
Beta blockers- a type of drug used to treat angina; controls potential over activity of the heart muscle

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CHD (Coronary Heart disease) - Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease in which a waxy substance
called plaque (plak) builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to
your heart muscle.
Transient ischemic attacks- mild form of stroke; often an indicator of impending major stroke.
Stroke- results when the blood supply to the brain is severely reduced or cut off.
Thrombus- blood clot
Embolus- blood clot forced through the circulatory system
Aneurysm- a weakened blood vessel that may bulge under pressure and, in severe cases, burst.
Hypertension- chronic high blood pressure; 140/80 mmHg or greater
Essential hypertension- hypertension as a result of unknown causes
Secondary hypertension- hypertension as a result of another condition such as kidney disease, obesity,
or tumours of the adrenal glands.
Systolic pressure- the upper number in the blood pressure fraction, refers to the pressure on the walls
of the arteries when the heart contracts.
Diastolic pressure- the lower number in the blood pressure fraction, refers to pressure on the walls of
the arteries during the relaxation phase of heart activity.
Arrhythmia- an irregularity in heartbeat
Fibrillation- a sporadic, quivering pattern of heartbeat resulting in inefficient moving of the blood
Congestive heart failure- occurs when the heart muscle is damaged or overworked and lacks the
strength to maintain blood circulation
Congenital heart disease- heart disease present at birth
Rheumatic heart disease- a heart disease caused by unresolved streptococcal infection of the throat.
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) a combination of protein, triglycerides, and cholesterol in the blood
that accumulate on arterial walls.
High- density lipoproteins (HDLs)- a combination of protein, triglycerides, and cholesterol that facilitate
the transport of LDLs to the liver for metabolism and elimination from the body.
Triglycerides: the most common form of fat in the body, consumed and manufactured in the body
Electrocardiogram- a record of the electrical activity of the heart measured during a stress test.
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