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APA2120 Midterm: APA 2120 MIDTERM

5 Pages

Human Kinetics
Course Code
Diane Ste- Marie

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find more resources at Schmidt’s Schema Theory: set of rules that defines an abstract memory representation 2 Schemas: 1. RECALL: assigns movement parameters (fast movements, open loop) 2. RECOGNITION: evaluates correctness of movements, compares desired results to actual & adjusts (slow movements, closed loop) OPEN-LOOP: (feedforward) CLOSED-LOOP: (feedback)  No feedback  Can adjust movements  Fast movements  Slower movements OPEN SKILL:  Parameters change as movement is CLOSED SKILL: happening (lots of movement in  constant environment) A set of muscle commands structured before a movement begins that allows a sequence to be carried out uninfluenced by peripheral feedback (is the control unit for humans!) Generalized Motor Program  Captures basic forms of our movement  Can generate many movements Development of GMP & Recall/Recognition Schemas (info sources): 1. Initial Conditions: info about context before movement is made 2. Parameters Assigned: force/duration that movement is given 3. Sensory Consequences: intrinsic/exteroceptive info received/expected 4. Outcome: intrinsic/extrinsic info about movement once executed (feedback) GMP’s have INVARIANTS & PARAMETERS: INVARIANTS: “deep structures” PARAMETERS: “surface features” -components that remain constant -modifiable features for a GMP -fundamental features of GMP that do -input specifications for GMP that not change from 1 execution to the define how a movement is executed next find more resources at find more resources at **Invariant Features** 1. Order of elements 2. Phasing/Relative timing: involves ration/proportion of each component to the total time Same relative timing=same GMP Dif. Relative timing= dif. GMP 3. Relative Force Parameters: 1. Absolute duration: overall speed at which a program is executed can change 2. Absolute force: overall force produced by muscles can change 3. Effectors:  Muscles used can change  Same GMP can be executed with dif. Muscles  Motor equivalence: dif. effectors can be used to achieve same goal DYNAMICAL APPROACH: Collective Variables: (order parameters) Control Parameters: -functionally specific -movement variable that adjusts according to -define an overall behaviour of a system characteristics of the situation (ex. Increasing -has a distinct pattern of movement speed of movement) - A set of internal processes associate w/ practice/experience- results in relative permanent changes in capability for a skill PERFORMANCE OUTCOME PERFORMANCE PRODUCTION MEASURES: MEASURES:  What’s happening after  Receives info about how movement activity/movement completed is used/produced  Sometimes uses time measures  More kinematic data KINESTHESIA: conscious perception of limb movement Reason/Purpose of BRAIN: PROPRIOCEPTION: sense of body/orientation in space To produce adaptable/complex movements find more resources at find more resources at 1. Translates intention to perform a movement Afferent: TO brain 2. Transmits control signals for relevant muscles
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