DVM study notes for Final Exam

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University of Ottawa
International Development and Globalization

DVM Midterm Study NotesDEVELOPMENTHard to define because it is a multidimensional political economical social etc and multipurpose concept that defers based on who is using it and in what concept it is being usedDevelopment must be defined in the following 3 ways In a triangle produceAccumulate Distribute1The ability of a society to produce adequate goods and services2The ability of a society to accumulate physical based capital 3The ability of a society to distribute those goods and services Developed societies are societies that can produce goods and also distribute them fairlyHISTORY OF DEVELOPMENTCan be categorized into 3 physicalconceptual ideasIWest Neo LiberalCapitalist view1 1949 Harry TrumanDevelopment as a form of helpIn 19491989 was the beginning of the COLD WAR the ideological war between USA West and Soviet Union East Truman introduced his idea that the people of the West should share their ideas with the South based on democratic and human rights but it was based really on their competition with Russia In order for societies to improve their economic standing they must be modernized 21960 Development as economic growth Smith and modernization theory RostowThe period between 19491960 development was presented as either economic growth or modernizationEconomic growthWorld has been accustomed to thinking in terms of materialist possessions after 1945Development was measured by GDP and NDP which was very misleading as although countries might have high GDPs they might still have a very undeveloped societies Ex Qatar and Brunei vs Canada and USAThey assume that material goods and peace go hand in handHighly questionable because it is very narrow and based on external sources Think that they have a moral duty to help those who are not developedThey are willing to misdirect the reality of development we have a duty to help instead of a duty to justiceYou can help but you should also keep in mind that the only true help is through justiceIn Smith 1776 wrote a book about the causes of the wealth of nationsHe took the capitalist approachAccording to him the wealthier a nation the more developed it isIn order for a society to find its way leave it free because as long as people are able to enjoy their own freedom to do their jobs they become more competitive leading to more production leading toward a higher level of development In order to know where the capitalist idea came from we must read Smiths bookFrom the time development was created it had a capitalist ideaThe goal is to have more productivity and more wealth without asking whyTHE INVISIBLE HAND market adjusts itself and the country prospers Smith believed that people should be competitive but still have a moral obligation to respect each otherBelieved that these empires exploited poorer to become richModernization theoryRostow believed that for the south to develop they must be modernized leaving behind the traditionalcultural ways of life because they are the source of underdevelopment THE FIVE STAGES OF ECONOMC GROWTHi Traditional societies Not developed Societies thatHave a low per capita incomeAre often agricultural cultureHave no technical knowledgeFollow religious political systemsii Preconditions of takeoffEnlarge outlookBe less dependent on agriculture Connect with the international communityControl birth rateExpand socialeconomical relations Accumulation of capital iii Takeoff stageSocieties must increase the rate of investment for the country over 1010 of the money GDP must go towards scientific research and technological advancesMust develop their own leading sectors industrializationDevelop the social and political frameworks relationshipsIncrease societies foreign tradeLearn more about the financial state of the worldiv SelfSustain Stagev Stage of affluence or high mass consumptionThe country has come to a stage where it has influence on other countriesCRITIQUES AND CHALLENGESIgnorant of the fact that societies are different with different beliefsIgnorant of the importance of cultureIntentionally disregards the unjust of the imperialistic tendencies of theInternational systemInterested in creating a one size fits all ideaWrongly takes modernization as a pathway to development with disregard for past history and traditionAssumes that the path to development must disregard traditionDetrimental to the reservation of traditional lifestyles Dominant approach to development Both 1 and 2 take a materialistconsumerist approach to development3 1976 International Labour OrganizationBasic needs approachNew way of defining development by addressing peoples basic needsArgue that the material satisfactions of the people cannot be used to define the development of a society but rather whether the basic needs of the people are being metBelieve that in order for development to occur basic needs and justice should be met The basic needs as described by the World Bank were sufficient foodshelterclothing protection from health problemseducationCRITICISM OF THIS THEORYEducation was put last when it is essential for development to occur in order for the southto
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