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Linguistics 1310 Final Exam Review
Constituent Tests (not 100% reliable) :
•grammatically replace some string ABC with a
pronoun, ABC must be a constituent
•one, so, do so
•Move a constituent to the front of the sentence;
• Replace it with the appropriate wh-phrase (who, what, where, why, how, when,
which X, etc.);
•Make minor adjustments (add do when necessary, etc.)
•Does, does so, does it, etc are pro-VPs
•He, she, it are pro-NPs
•There and then are pro-PPs
•no two `branches` can cross (nest not overlap)
•N' > N NP>N'
•V'= did so
N -if you can make it pl
-if it can be in the frame
-exceptions: nothing, zero,
Adj- if it can be ___-er/__-est
(doesn’t always work)
-can appear in
the______ mouse exists
Determiners: the, a, some,
many, no, every, . . .
Complementizers: that, for,
whether, if, . . .
Prepositions: in, on, after,
V- if it can be PT
Projection Principle -syntactic structure must reflect the selectional requirements of
the lexical items it contains
•For example, the verb strangle, apart from the subject, has an obligatory
argument, its object, which
must appear in the sentence. The following subcatergorization frame for the
verb strangle specifies its
properties; the underlined gap for the location of the verb is followed by the
noun phrase (NP):
strangle Verb, [__ NP]
Headedness (first pass)-
All rewrite rules should have one of these forms:
1 XP --> . . . X . . .
2 X--> y (for some terminal node y of category X)
3 S-->NP VP
Without knowing the context, the identity of the speaker, and their intent, it is not
possible to infer the meaning with confidence
What the speaker means or intends to communicates in uttering an expression
A: Would you like some coffee? B: Coffee would keep me awake
The meaning(s) that an expression has simply as a part of the language it belongs to
(bachelor means "unmarried adult male")
Concepts linked to speaker meaning
Relations b'tween concepts
Hyperonym-every dog is an animal Hyponym- dog is of animal
Wet and dry-antonyms (opposites) Synonyms- every groundhog is a
woodchuck and vise versa
hyponymy and hyperonymy- transitive
- if X is a hyponym of Y, and Y is a hyponym of Z, then X is a hyponym of Z.
Decomposition- Kill-CAUSE(BECOME(NOT (ALIVE))) breaking down words to define
P and Q| Q___
| T F_
P | T | T F
| F | F F
Interrogatives-knowing what an answer would look like
Imperatives- knowing what would count as carrying out the request
Principle of compositionality- meaning of a complex expression is determined by (a)
meaning of its parts and (b) the way they are combined.
Object Language- linguistic system we are trying to describe
Metalanguage-system we use to talk about the object language (john' worship'(x)(y))
Sense- of a declarative sentence determines the conditions under which it would be
Indexical- a term whose reference depends on the context of utterance (you, here,
Quantifiers - elements rather than referring to some particular individual, generalize
(or over other things)
(the universal quantifier): "every. . . " always occurs with two propositions linked by
(the existential quantifier): "at least one" ≈ "a" always occurs with two propositions
linked by &
Variable and proposition
x:P(x) "every x is such that the property P holds of x"
x:P(x) "at least one x is such that P holds of x"
--> in metalanguage is representing the r'ship b'tween propositions for "if...then" or
& in metalanguage is representing the r'ship b'tween propositions we call 'and'
¬ in metalanguage meaning not
V in metalanguage means or
individual constants (regular individuals, as opposed to variables) like j' or ottawa'.
variables as we need, like x and y. Individual constants and variables are the two
types of individual.
Two truth values, T and F. Propositions are semantic units which can bear truth values
in a particular model of the world.
Lots of predicates (functions which take an argument and return either another
function or a truth value).
-Some functions (1-place predicates like sleep' or red') take an individual as
input and return a proposition.
-Some functions (2-place predicates like love' or devour') take an individual as
input and return a 1-place
Ambiguous (is associated with two different meanings) just because it contains two
quantifiers whose relative scope is indeterminate.
1 Someone (X) has a message M1 in their head.
2 X encodes M1 in a string of sounds.
3 X produces that string of sounds.
4 Someone else (Y) receives (hears) that string of sounds.
5 Y decodes the string of sounds to generate a message M2.
6 If the communication has been successful, M1 and M2 match.
He walked to the bank
Time flies like an arrow
He saw the boy with the telescope
Every man loves a woman.
Inferential Model (steps)
Step 1: Decode utterance/resolve ambiguities/resolve context-dependent elements