Study Guides (380,000)
CA (150,000)
UOttawa (10,000)
PHI (600)
PHI 1101 (100)
Study Guide

[PHI1101] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (134 pages long!)


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHI 1101
Professor
Mark Brown
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 134 pages of the document.
uOttawa
PHI1101
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

PHI 1101: Class Notes (Lecture 2)
A statement: a claim that something is or is not the case
A statement is a simple sentence that has just one meaning, for it expresses one
thought.
In addition, a statement asserts that something is the case or is not the case.
When the statement asserts that something is the case it’s called an affirmation;
when it asserts that something is not the case, it is also called a negation or
denial.
With this in mind, which of the following sentences are statements?
The lamp on my table is switched on. statement
Good morning everyone!
My sweater is green. statement
How many cars are parked outside right now?
Smoking is bad for your health. statement
Smoking is good for your health. statement
What time is it?
Premise: a statement that is given in support of another statement
Conclusion: A statement that premises are meant to support, a claim meant to be
supported by reasons offered in the argument.
Argument: A group of statements in which some of them are intended to support
another of them. A set of claims, one of which is meant to be supported by others.
So, in critical thinking terms the work ’argument’ doesn’t just mean a debate or a
contradiction.
Premise  I got food poisoning when I ate there last
Conclusion  I want to avoid that restaurant from here on in’
Inference  the process of moving form a premise or premises in an argument to a
conclusion.
How do we recognize arguments?
Look for a conclusion, and look for the supporting premises
Look for ‘inference indicators’
Inferences are often embodied in certain ‘inference indicators’ which show you which
way the direction of the argument is following.
1) Premise Indicators
Because
Since
In view of the fact
For
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Due to the fact that
2) Conclusion Indicators
Therefore
Thus
So
Consequently
It follows that
We can conclude that
Ergo
Hence
Arguments with missing aspects:
If something is left out, then the listener/reader of the argument needs to fill in the
blanks.
Arguments that have implicit (or hidden) premises or conclusions are known as
enthymemes.
Examples:
Hidden Premise (you’re a student, so must be short of cash  students are
always short of cash)
Hidden Conclusion (the last piece of cake is gone. There are only 2 of us here
and I didn’t take it  you took the last piece of cake)
Chapter 1, Page 12 (from textbook)
2.
4.
10.
18.
Simple and Complex Arguments
Simple Argument:
Since you are not having a good time, therefore we should leave.
Complex Argument:
You are a student so you’re probably broke. So, you likely don’t have money for a beer.
This complex argument is distinguished because it had more than one inference, and it
has at least one intermediate conclusion.
Chapter 1, Page 10 (Textbook)
2. Simple argument
3. Complex argument (“so” and “thus”)
5. Simple argument
10. Simple argument
Don’t confuse arguments with Explanations:
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version