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PHI1101 Final: Republic Model Answers (all 7)

Course Code
PHI 1101
Laura Byrne
Study Guide

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Cephalus’s Definition
Premise 1: Justice is telling the truth and paying your debts. (1 mark)
Premise 2: Justice is not harmful. (1 mark) (Unstated premise: The argument is an
enthymeme.) (1 mark)
Premise 3: Telling the truth and paying your debts is harmful. (In the case of the insane man
and his weapons.) (1 mark)
Conclusion 1: Therefore, justice is not harmful (by P2) and justice is harmful (by P3). (1 mark)
Conclusion 2: Therefore, the statement “Justice is telling the truth and paying your debts” is
false. (1 mark) (By Reductio ad Absurdum; because of the Law of Non-Contradiction) (1 mark)
Conclusion 3: Therefore, the statement “It is not the case that justice is telling the truth and
paying your debts” is true. (1 mark) (Because of the Law of Excluded Middle) (1 mark)
Total 10 marks
Thrasymachus’ Definition
Premise One: The stronger are the rulers. (1 mark)
Premise Two: The rulers make the laws. (1 mark)
Premise Three: The rulers make the laws to their own advantage. (1 mark)
Premise Four: The laws constitute what is just. (1 mark)
Conclusion: Justice is the advantage of the stronger. (1 mark)
Socrates has two options if he wishes to refute Thrasymachus’s position.
Socrates can ask:
Is the argument logically strong? An argument is logically strong when the premises, if true,
actually provide support for the conclusion or make it reasonable to believe the conclusion is
true. (1 mark)
Is the argument sound? An argument is sound if it is logically strong and it has true premises.
(1 mark)
Socrates choses to ask if the argument is sound. He asks if Premise Three is true. (1 mark)
Total 8 marks
Glaucon’s Challenge
Glaucon thinks that the term good can have the following meanings:
It can mean intrinsically good. In this case, it is desirable in itself apart from its consequences,
like reading for pleasure. (1 mark)
It can mean instrumentally good. In this case, it is desirable only because of its consequences,
like bad tasting medicine. (1 mark)
Or it can be both intrinsically and instrumentally good. In this case, it is desirable both for its own
sake and because of its consequences, like being healthy. (1 mark)
Total 3 marks
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