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Final

PHI 1101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Begging, Robert Frost, Modus Ponens


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHI 1101
Professor
Mark Brown
Study Guide
Final

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Final
Implicit Premise and Conclusions (indicators)
Standard Form w Diagrams
The 5 Types of Non Deductive arguments
Inductive Generalization
Statistical Syllogisms
Plausibility Argument
Causal Arguments
Arguments by Analogy
Evaluating Valid Argument Proofs
Venn Diagrams
Fallacies
Vagueness
Worthy of your belief
Plato related questions

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Implicit Premise and Conclusions
Inference Indicators- premise indicators (ie. because, since, due to the fact, for,
for the reason that...) and conclusion indicators (ie. therefore, thus, so,
consequently, it follows that,...)
Simple Arguments- only has one inference; moving from a premise(s) to a
conclusion; only one conclusion
Complex Arguments- at least one intermediate conclusion; at least more than
one inference; at least more than one conclusion
Premise: A statement given in support of another statement; a claim put forth  
as a reason for a conclusion.
Conclusion: A statement that premises are meant to support; a claim meant to    
be supported by reasons offered in the argument.
Intermediate Conclusion-
1. Acts as a conclusion for what comes before (premises)
2. and a premise in a continuing chain of reason
Conditional Statements “If...then…”
Disjunctive Statements “Either...or…”
Enthymemes: arguments with missing aspects,arguments have implicit (or
hidden) premise or implicit (or hidden) conclusions; not always stated within the
argument
Premise indicators: are followed by a premise.
Examples of premise indicator words: Because, since, in view of the fact,
given that, for, for the reason that, or due to the fact that.
“We should go back to Joe’s Diner, because we had fun there last week.” or
“‘We can expect Dad to be late, since he’s always late when he stops at
Canadian Tire.”
 Conclusion indicators: are followed by a conclusion.
Examples of conclusion indicator words: Therefore, thus, so,
consequently, it follows that, we can conclude that, ergo, or hence.
“The quiz is tomorrow, so we should study.” or “‘I got sick last time we
went there; therefore we shouldn’t go back there.”

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Standard Form & Diagram
Independent premises each lend some support to the conclusion, on
their own.
Dependent premises must be combined in order to support the
conclusion.
#1 Simple
1. The only alternatives are dictatorship or anarchy
2. Both dictatorship and anarchy are terrible systems of government
3. Terrible systems of government are not viable
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Democracy is the only viable system of government
1         2         3
           |
           4
#2 Simple
1. It’s extremely hot in the summer
2. Neither of us reacts well to extreme heat
3. It’s too expensive
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4. We shouldn't go to Australia on the holidays
1        2         3
     \              /
            4
Complex
1. Professors never stop splitting hairs
2. Splitting hairs is a real sign of being overly particular
3. Professors are overly particular 1,2
4. Overly particular people tend to be talkative
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5. Professors tend to be talkative 3,4
1          2
      |
      3          4
           |
           5 
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