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Midterm

PHI1101 Midterm 1 notes.pdf

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHI1101
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Tuesday Jan 15 2013 Analyzing ArgumentsGoalsI Showing the structure of argumentsArguments may deal with difcult subject matter be stated in obscure language or be long and complex This chapter will give us the tools necessary to analyze arguments The goal is to reach the point where we can evaluate arguments asking questions such as Are the premises true or Is the inference logically successfulStandard form Arrange the claims so the premises come before the conclusion they support intermediate and nal conclusion the premises and conclusions in the revised order p15After each conclusion write theof the premises that support it p19 We can employ a diagram to show the connections among claims in complex argumentsPremises are independent if they offer separate reasons for the conclusionPremises are dependent if the offer related reason or they depend on the form of the argument for the conclusion II Strategies of analysisIndicators and contextIdentify inference indicatorsConsider the larger context Dealing with ClaimsIdentify each claimReformulate claims if necessary Discard extra elements Structuresidentify main argumentidentify any sub argumentidentify replies to objectionsTwo Special ProblemsArguments and explanations Conditions ifthen Disjunctions eitheror unless Each one only makes one claimExample All men are mortal Socrates is a man Therefore Socrates is mortal Premises 1All men are mortal2Socrates is a man3Conclusion Socrates is mortal 12 Premise 1With very few exceptions no philosophy no political ideology has e ver been presented as anything other than an exercise in liberation2 Conclusion There is no notion more ambivalent than that of freedom 1You should read Sartre Existentialism confronts the nothingness at the core of our existence and Sartre is a good writer Premises 1 Existentialism confronts the nothingness at the core of our existence 2and Sartre is a good writer 3Conclusion You should read Sartre 12 There premises are independent I didnt bring an umbrella If the rain stops then I wont get soaked walking home The rain stopped I wont get soaked walking home 1If the rain stops the I wont get soaked walking home2The rain stopped3I wont get soaked walking home 12 1Ed must either save money during the school year or work all summer2He did not save money during the school year 3He will work all summer 12 1The Cat90 is the best lawnmower you can buy2You want the best3You should buy the Cat90 12 Dependent premises 1Henry has started a weightlifting program 2Weight lifers are usually very strong3Henry will soon be very strong 124Anyone who is unusually strong can make the football team 5Henry will make the football team 34ThursdayJan 17 2013 p 26 61A normal clover has 3 leaves24leaf clovers are very rare 13 4leaf clovers bring good luck 4 You should never pass up a fourleaf clover 23
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