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Final

PHI 1101 FINAL EXAM.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHI1101
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
PHI1101FINALEXAMCriticalThinkingRepublicDeductivelyValidArgumentForms1ModusPonensIfpthenqExIfyouliveinMontrealthenyouliveinQuebecYouliveinMontrealPThereforeyouliveinThereforeqQuebecpantecedentqconsequentAFFIRMINGTHEANTECEDENT2ModusTollensIfpthenqExIfyouliveinMontrealthenyouliveinQuebecYoudonotliveinQuebecqThereforeyoudonotliveinMontrealThereforepDENYINGTHECONSEQUENTIfpthenq3HypotheticalSyllogismIfqthenrExIfyouliveinMontrealthenyouliveinQuebecIfyouliveinQuebecthenyouliveinCanadaThereforeifpThereforeifyouliveinMontrealthenyouliveinCanadathenr4DisjunctiveSyllogismExYouhadeitherwhitemilkorchocolateEitherporqmilkNotpYoudidnothavewhitemilkThereforeqThereforeyouhadchocolatemilkFormallyInvalidArgumentFormsIfpthenq1TheFallacyofAffirmingtheConsequentqExIfyoulikeStarTrekyoulikeLostThereforepYoulikeLostThereforeyoulikeStarTrekBecausethisargumentisinvalidacounterexamplecanbefoundP1IfitisrainingthenthestreetsarewetP2ThestreetsarewetCThereforeitisrainingP1andP2mightbetruewhileCisfalseThestreetsmightbewetforanotherreason2TheFallacyofDenyingtheAntecedentIfpthenqExIfyoulikeStarTrekLostyoulikepYoudonotlikeStarTrekThereforeqThereforeyoudonotlikeLostBecausethisargumentisinvalidacounterexamplecanbefoundP1IfitisrainingthenthestreetsarewetP2ItisnotrainingCThereforethestreetsarenotwetP1andP2mightbetruewhileCisfalseThestreetsmightbewetforanotherreasonUNIT1StatementAstatementisasentenceusedtomakeaclaimStatementsarecapableofbeingeithertrueorfalsenotcommandsquestionsandexpressionsofvolitionLawsofLogicTheLawofNonContradictionoThislawstatesthatitisimpossibleforbothapropositionanditsnegationtobetrueatthesametimeTheLawoftheExcludedMiddleortheLawofBivalenceThislogicallawstatesthateverypropositionmustbeeithertrueorfalseInotherowordsanymiddlepositionbetweentruthandfalsityisexcludedSetsofpropositionsSetsoWhilestatementsarecapableofbeingeithertrueorfalsesetsofpropositionsareconsistentorinconsistentConsistencyoAsetofpropositionsisconsistentifandonlyifitispossibleforallofthesentencesinthatsettobetrueatthesametimeInferenceoInferenceisarelationshipbetweentwothoughtsthatoccurswhenonethoughtsupportsorjustifiesormakesitreasonabletobelieveanotheroOnethoughtprovidessupportforanotherthoughtoritmakesitreasonabletobelievethatanotherthoughtistrueoAlogicalrelationshipbetweenthoughtsArgumentsoAnargumentisasetofstatementsthatclaimsthatoneormoreofthosestatementscalledthepremisessupportorjustifyormakeitreasonabletobelievethatanotherofthosestatementstheconclusionistrue
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