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PHI 1101 Midterm Review.docx

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PHI 1101 Midterm ReviewWhat is Critical ThinkingCritical thinking is the systematic evaluation or formulation of beliefs or statements by rational standards Systematic because it involves distinct procedures and methods not just gut feelings etc Evaluation and formulation used to assess existing beliefs and devise new ones Also it has rational standards because beliefs are judged by how well they are supported by reasons How can this be helpfulCritical thinking is essential for problem solving decisionmaking and persuasion What influences our critical thinkingThere are many sources of belief such as family school friends media science country religion etcChapter 1 Recognizing ArgumentsThere are three key elements to retain from this chapterDefine the concept of an argumentLearn to recognize argumentsIntroduce some standard terms First of all what is an ArgumentIt is a set of claims which can be divided into a conclusion and one or more premises What is a conclusionIt is a claim which premises support What is a premise It is a claim which is given in support of another claim In other terms the conclusion is what the speaker wants the audience to accept And the premises state reasons for the audience to accept that conclusions Therefore premises provide reasons evidence for believing that the conclusion is true
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