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PHI1101 NTest 1 ReviewArgumentset of claims one of which is meant to be supported by the othersArgument conclusionpremisesConclusion is a claim meant to be supported by reasons offered in an argumentStatement Claim that something is or is not the casePremise is a claim put forth as a reason for a conclusionInference is a move from premises in an argument to a conclusionConclusion Indicators are words used to indicate that a conclusion is about to be drawnPremise indicators are words used to indicate that a premise is about to be givenEnthymemes are arguments that have implicit unstated premises or conclusionsIntermediate conclusion is an argument that is a claim that is supported by some other claim or claims but that itself also provides support for a further conclusionFinal Conclusion of an argument is the arguments final point the conclusion that is not itself a premise for anything else in that argumentSimple argument are arguments that have no intermediate conclusions that contain only one inferenceComplex argument are arguments that have at least one intermediate conclusion contain more than one inferenceCritical Thinking The systematic evaluation or formulation of beliefs or statements by rational standardsEnvironment of Critical Thinking1 Problems with how we think1Selfinterested thinkingSelf preservationWe prefer to see ourselves in a positive mannerEx Selfinterestedaccepting a claim solely on the grounds that it advances or coincides with our self interests I believe in gun control because I am a hunter2How we think about other peopleTheory People follow people in authorityGroup Thinking Peer pressure To dobelieve what the group doesStereotypingInvolves drawing conclusions about people without sufficient reasons based on their membership in a groupclass religionracepolitical party etc2 Problems withwhat we think1Part of the worldview of critical thinking like science is the idea that The world is publicly understandable2There is an objective truth that exists independent from us not subjective which is not dependant on what we believe3Critical thinking rejects relativismEx224 Whales are mammals Ottawa is the capital of Canada etcSubjective RelativismTruth depends solely on what someone believes the truth to beTruth is relative to the individualEx Its snowing because I believe it to beSocial Cultural RelativismTruth is relative to beliefs of particular group culture or society
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